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Title: Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of the two-stage fragmentation model for cluster formation

We model molecular cloud fragmentation with thin-disk, non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations that include ambipolar diffusion and partial ionization that transitions from primarily ultraviolet-dominated to cosmic-ray-dominated regimes. These simulations are used to determine the conditions required for star clusters to form through a two-stage fragmentation scenario. Recent linear analyses have shown that the fragmentation length scales and timescales can undergo a dramatic drop across the column density boundary that separates the ultraviolet- and cosmic-ray-dominated ionization regimes. As found in earlier studies, the absence of an ionization drop and regular perturbations leads to a single-stage fragmentation on pc scales in transcritical clouds, so that the nonlinear evolution yields the same fragment sizes as predicted by linear theory. However, we find that a combination of initial transcritical mass-to-flux ratio, evolution through a column density regime in which the ionization drop takes place, and regular small perturbations to the mass-to-flux ratio is sufficient to cause a second stage of fragmentation during the nonlinear evolution. Cores of size ∼0.1 pc are formed within an initial fragment of ∼pc size. Regular perturbations to the mass-to-flux ratio also accelerate the onset of runaway collapse.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Current address: School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, UK. (United Kingdom)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Western Ontario, 1151 Richmond Street, London, Ontario N6A 3K7 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348334
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 780; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION; COSMIC RADIATION; DENSITY; DISTURBANCES; EVOLUTION; FRAGMENTATION; IONIZATION; MAGNETIC FIELDS; MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMICS; PERTURBATION THEORY; SIMULATION; STAR CLUSTERS; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION