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Title: Mid-infrared imaging of the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 from SOFIA

We have imaged the bipolar planetary nebula M2-9 using SOFIA's FORCAST instrument in six wavelength bands between 6.6 and 37.1 μm. A bright central point source, unresolved with SOFIA's ∼4''-5'' beam, is seen at each wavelength, and the extended bipolar lobes are clearly seen at 19.7 μm and beyond. The photometry between 10 and 25 μm is well fit by the emission predicted from a stratified disk seen at large inclination, as has been proposed for this source by Lykou et al. and by Smith and Gehrz. The principal new results in this paper relate to the distribution and properties of the dust that emits the infrared radiation. In particular, a considerable fraction of this material is spread uniformly through the lobes, although the dust density does increase at the sharp outer edge seen in higher resolution optical images of M2-9. The dust grain population in the lobes shows that small (<0.1 μm) and large (>1 μm) particles appear to be present in roughly equal amounts by mass. We suggest that collisional processing within the bipolar outflow plays an important role in establishing the particle size distribution.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ; ; ; ;  [6]
  1. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91107 (United States)
  2. Institute for Astronomy, University of Vienna, Turkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180, Vienna (Austria)
  3. USRA SOFIA Science Center, M/S 211-3, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States)
  4. Division of Astronomy, P.O. Box 951547, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)
  5. Department of Physics, Ithaca College, Ithaca, NY 14850 (United States)
  6. Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348224
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 780; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; DENSITY; DISTRIBUTION; DUSTS; EMISSION; IMAGES; INCLINATION; INTERMEDIATE INFRARED RADIATION; MASS; PARTICLE SIZE; PHOTOMETRY; PLANETARY NEBULAE; POINT SOURCES; RESOLUTION; WAVELENGTHS