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Title: SN 2005ip: A luminous type IIn supernova emerging from a dense circumstellar medium as revealed by X-ray observations

We report on the X-ray spectral evolution of the nearby Type IIn supernova (SN) 2005ip based on Chandra and Swift observations covering ∼1-6 yr after explosion. X-ray spectra in all epochs are well fitted by a thermal emission model with kT ≳ 7 keV. The somewhat high temperature suggests that the X-ray emission mainly arises from the circumstellar medium (CSM) heated by the forward shock. We find that the spectra taken two to three years after the explosion are heavily absorbed (N {sub H} ∼ 5 × 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}), but the absorption gradually decreases to the level of the Galactic absorption (N {sub H} ∼ 4 × 10{sup 20} cm{sup –2}) at the final epoch. This indicates that the SN went off in a dense CSM and that the forward shock has overtaken it. The intrinsic X-ray luminosity stays constant until the final epoch, when it drops by a factor of ∼2. The intrinsic 0.2-10 keV luminosity during the plateau phase is measured to be ∼1.5 × 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}, ranking SN 2005ip as one of the brightest X-ray SNe. Based on the column density, we derive a lower limit of a mass-loss rate to bemore » M-dot ∼1.5×10{sup −2} (V{sub w} /100 km s{sup –1}) M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, which roughly agrees with that inferred from the X-ray luminosity, M-dot ∼2×10{sup −2} (V{sub w} /100 km s{sup –1}) M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, where V{sub w} is the circumstellar wind speed. Such a high mass-loss rate suggests that the progenitor star had eruptive mass ejections similar to a luminous blue variable star. The total mass ejected in the eruptive period is estimated to be ∼15 M {sub ☉}, indicating that the progenitor mass is ≳ 25 M {sub ☉}.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5]
  1. RIKEN (The Institute of Physical and Chemical Research) Nishina Center, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
  2. Department of Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kitashirakawa-Oiwake-cho, Sakyo-ku, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
  3. Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)
  4. Department of Physics, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX 77341-2267 (United States)
  5. Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 2077 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348214
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 780; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION; DENSITY; EMISSION; EVOLUTION; EXPLOSIONS; KEV RANGE; LUMINOSITY; MASS TRANSFER; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERNOVAE; VELOCITY; X RADIATION; X-RAY SPECTRA