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Title: A multi-wavelength investigation of the radio-loud supernova PTF11qcj and its circumstellar environment

We present the discovery, classification, and extensive panchromatic (from radio to X-ray) follow-up observations of PTF11qcj, a supernova (SN) discovered by the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). Our observations with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array show that this event is radio-loud: PTF11qcj reached a radio peak luminosity comparable to that of the famous gamma-ray-burst-associated SN 1998bw (L {sub 5} {sub GHz} ≈ 10{sup 29} erg s{sup –1} Hz{sup –1}). PTF11qcj is also detected in X-rays with the Chandra Observatory, and in the infrared band with Spitzer. Our multi-wavelength analysis probes the SN interaction with circumstellar material. The radio observations suggest a progenitor mass-loss rate of ∼10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} × (v{sub w} /1000 km s{sup –1}), and a velocity of ≈0.3-0.5 c for the fastest moving ejecta (at ≈10 days after explosion). However, these estimates are derived assuming the simplest model of SN ejecta interacting with a smooth circumstellar wind, and do not account for possible inhomogeneities in the medium and asphericity of the explosion. The radio data show deviations from such a simple model, as well as a late-time re-brightening. The X-ray flux from PTF11qcj is compatible with the high-frequency extrapolation of the radio synchrotronmore » emission (within the large uncertainties). A light echo from pre-existing dust is in agreement with our infrared data. Our pre-explosion data from the PTF suggest that a precursor eruption of absolute magnitude M{sub r} ≈ –13 mag may have occurred ≈2.5 yr prior to the SN explosion. Overall, PTF11qcj fits the expectations from the explosion of a Wolf-Rayet star. Precursor eruptions may be a feature characterizing the final pre-explosion evolution of such stars.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [6] ; ; ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] more »; « less
  1. Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st St, NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)
  2. Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute of Science, 76100 Rehovot (Israel)
  3. National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box O, Socorro, NM 87801 (United States)
  4. Division of Physics, Mathematics, and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)
  5. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)
  6. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
  7. Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom)
  8. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 685, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)
  9. Max-Planck-Institut fur Astrophysik, D-85741 Garching (Germany)
  10. Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22348034
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 782; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CLASSIFICATION; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COSMIC GAMMA BURSTS; EMISSION; EXTRAPOLATION; INTERACTIONS; LUMINOSITY; MASS TRANSFER; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERNOVAE; TRANSIENTS; VELOCITY; VISIBLE RADIATION; WAVELENGTHS; WOLF-RAYET STARS; X RADIATION