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Title: Ensemble refinement shows conformational flexibility in crystal structures of human complement factor D

Ensemble-refinement analysis of native and mutant factor D (FD) crystal structures indicates a dynamical transition in FD from a self-inhibited inactive conformation to a substrate-bound active conformation that is reminiscent of the allostery in thrombin. Comparison with previously observed dynamics in thrombin using NMR data supports the crystallographic ensembles. Human factor D (FD) is a self-inhibited thrombin-like serine proteinase that is critical for amplification of the complement immune response. FD is activated by its substrate through interactions outside the active site. The substrate-binding, or ‘exosite’, region displays a well defined and rigid conformation in FD. In contrast, remarkable flexibility is observed in thrombin and related proteinases, in which Na{sup +} and ligand binding is implied in allosteric regulation of enzymatic activity through protein dynamics. Here, ensemble refinement (ER) of FD and thrombin crystal structures is used to evaluate structure and dynamics simultaneously. A comparison with previously published NMR data for thrombin supports the ER analysis. The R202A FD variant has enhanced activity towards artificial peptides and simultaneously displays active and inactive conformations of the active site. ER revealed pronounced disorder in the exosite loops for this FD variant, reminiscent of thrombin in the absence of the stabilizing Na{sup +} ion.more » These data indicate that FD exhibits conformational dynamics like thrombin, but unlike in thrombin a mechanism has evolved in FD that locks the unbound native state into an ordered inactive conformation via the self-inhibitory loop. Thus, ensemble refinement of X-ray crystal structures may represent an approach alternative to spectroscopy to explore protein dynamics in atomic detail.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1]
  1. Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584 CH Utrecht (Netherlands)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22347786
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Acta Crystallographica. Section D: Biological Crystallography; Journal Volume: 70; Journal Issue: Pt 3; Other Information: PMCID: PMC3949522; PMID: 24598742; PUBLISHER-ID: rr5061; OAI: oai:pubmedcentral.nih.gov:3949522; Copyright (c) Forneris et al. 2014; This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are cited.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
Denmark
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ATOMS; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALS; FLEXIBILITY; INTERACTIONS; LIGANDS; NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE; SPECTROSCOPY; SUBSTRATES