skip to main content

Title: Formation of primordial supermassive stars by rapid mass accretion

Supermassive stars (SMSs) forming via very rapid mass accretion ( M-dot {sub ∗}≳0.1 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}) could be precursors of supermassive black holes observed beyond a redshift of about six. Extending our previous work, here we study the evolution of primordial stars growing under such rapid mass accretion until the stellar mass reaches 10{sup 4–5} M {sub ☉}. Our stellar evolution calculations show that a star becomes supermassive while passing through the 'supergiant protostar' stage, whereby the star has a very bloated envelope and a contracting inner core. The stellar radius increases monotonically with the stellar mass until ≅ 100 AU for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}, after which the star begins to slowly contract. Because of the large radius, the effective temperature is always less than 10{sup 4} K during rapid accretion. The accreting material is thus almost completely transparent to the stellar radiation. Only for M {sub *} ≳ 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉} can stellar UV feedback operate and disturb the mass accretion flow. We also examine the pulsation stability of accreting SMSs, showing that the pulsation-driven mass loss does not prevent stellar mass growth. Observational signatures of bloated SMSs should bemore » detectable with future observational facilities such as the James Webb Space Telescope. Our results predict that an inner core of the accreting SMS should suffer from the general relativistic instability soon after the stellar mass exceeds 10{sup 5} M {sub ☉}. An extremely massive black hole should form after the collapse of the inner core.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3]
  1. Department of Physics and Research Center for the Early Universe, The University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
  2. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
  3. Department of Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22341907
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 778; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ACCRETION DISKS; BLACK HOLES; CONTRACTS; COSMOLOGY; FEEDBACK; GALAXIES; INSTABILITY; MASS TRANSFER; PRECURSOR; PULSATIONS; RED SHIFT; RELATIVISTIC RANGE; SPACE; STABILITY; STAR EVOLUTION; STELLAR RADIATION; STELLAR WINDS; SUPERMASSIVE STARS; TELESCOPES; UNIVERSE