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Title: Metallurgical characterization of brass objects from the Akko 1 shipwreck, Israel

The Akko 1 shipwreck was a small Egyptian armed vessel or auxiliary naval brig built in the eastern Mediterranean at the beginning of the 19th century. During the underwater excavations, about 230 brass hook-and-eye closures were found, mainly in the bow area. In addition, 158 brass cases were found, mainly between midships and the aft extremity of the shipwreck. Metallurgical non-destructive and destructive characterizations of selected items were performed, including radiographic testing, XRF, lead isotope analysis, optical microscopy, SEM–EDS and microhardness tests. The hook-and-eye closures and the cases were both found to be made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). While the brass cases were made from rolled sheets, hand-made using simple tools, and joined by tin–lead soldering material, the brass hook-and-eye closures were hand-made from drawn brass wire, and manufactured from commercial drawn brass bars by a cold-working process. The lead isotope analyses suggest different provenances of the raw materials used for making the brass objects, thus the different origins of the ores may hint that the brass wire and sheet were imported to the workshops in which the objects were manufactured. - Highlights: • Brass cases and hook-and-eye closures were retrieved from the Akko 1 shipwreck.more » • Both types of objects were made of binary copper–zinc alloy (about 30 wt.% zinc). • The cases were hand-made from rolled sheets and joined by tin–lead soldering. • Hook-and-eye closures were made from drawn brass wire manufactured by cold-working. • Lead isotope analyses suggest that the origins of the raw material were diverse.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [2]
  1. Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, Ramat Aviv 69978 (Israel)
  2. Leon Recanati Institute for Maritime Studies, University of Haifa, 31905 (Israel)
  3. Department of Materials Engineering, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva 84105 (Israel)
  4. Institut für Geowissenschaften, Facheinheit Mineralogie, J. W. Goethe Universität, Altenhöferallee 1, D-60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22340366
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 92; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BRASS; COLD WORKING; COPPER; LEAD ISOTOPES; MICROHARDNESS; MICROSTRUCTURE; OPTICAL MICROSCOPY; RAW MATERIALS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOLDERING; TIN; X-RAY FLUORESCENCE ANALYSIS; ZINC