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Title: Characterization of bulk stainless steel joints developed through microwave hybrid heating

Processing of metallic materials through microwave heating is a challenging area of research. In the present work, joining of stainless steel-316 to stainless steel-316 in the bulk form has been carried out by placing stainless steel-316 powder at the interface and through targeted heating using microwave hybrid heating. The trials were carried out in a multimode microwave applicator at a frequency of 2.45 GHz and power 900 W. The developed joints were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscope and measurement of Vicker's microhardness, porosity and tensile strength. The X-ray diffraction spectrum of the developed joint shows the presence of chromium carbide, iron carbide and iron silicide phases that eventually contribute to enhancement of the microhardness of the joint. The scanning electron microscope micrographs confirm classical metallurgical bonding between the substrate and the interface (molten powder) layer; the epitaxial growth rate was observed adjacent to the fusion zone. The average observed Vicker's microhardness in the joint zone on the grain boundary was significantly higher than that inside the grains due to the presence of various hard phases at the grain boundaries. Evaluation of the tensile strength of the joints showed an averagemore » ultimate tensile strength of 425.0 MPa with an average elongation of 9.44%. - Highlights: • Joining of stainless steel (SS-316) plates using microwave hybrid heating • Epitaxial growth rate observed adjacent to the fusion zone of welded joint • The ultimate tensile strength of the order of 425.0 MPa with 9.44% elongation.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, Roorkee 247667 (India)
  2. Reactor Control Division, BARC, Mumbai (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22340357
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Characterization; Journal Volume: 91; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2014 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; BONDING; CHROMIUM CARBIDES; EPITAXY; EVALUATION; FIELD EMISSION; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; HYBRIDIZATION; IRON CARBIDES; IRON SILICIDES; MICROHARDNESS; MICROWAVE HEATING; POROSITY; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SPECTRA; STAINLESS STEEL-316; SUBSTRATES; TENSILE PROPERTIES; X RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION