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Title: Interesting features in the combined Galex and Sloan color diagrams of solar-like galactic populations

We report on intriguing photometric properties of Galactic stars observed in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite's far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) bandpasses, as well as from the ground-based Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Kepler Input Catalog. The first property is that the (FUV – NUV) color distribution of stars in the Kepler field consists of two well-separated peaks. A second and more perplexing property is that for stars with spectral types G or later the mean (FUV – NUV) color becomes much bluer, contrary to expectation. Investigating this tendency further, we found in two samples of mid-F through K type stars that 17%-22% of them exhibit FUV excesses relative to their NUV fluxes and spectral types. A correction for FUV incompleteness of the FUV magnitude-limited star sample brings this ratio to 14%-18%. Nearly the same fractions are also discovered among members of the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog and in the published list of Kepler Objects of Interest. These UV-excess ('UVe') colors are confirmed by the negative UV continuum slopes in GALEX spectra of members of the population. The SDSS spectra of some UVe stars exhibit metallic line weakening, especially in the blue. This suggests an enhanced contributionmore » of UV flux relative to photospheric flux of a solar-type single star. We consider the possibility that the UV excesses originate from various types of hot stars, including white dwarf DA and sdB stars, binaries, and strong chromosphere stars that are young or in active binaries. The space density of compact stars is too low to explain the observed frequency of the UVe stars. Our model atmosphere-derived simulations of colors for binaries with main-sequence pairs with a hot secondary demonstrate that the color loci conflict with the observed sequence. As a preferred alternative we are left with the active chromospheres explanation, whether in active close binaries or young single stars, despite the expected paucity of young, chromospherically active stars in the field. We also address a third perplexing color property, namely, the presence of a prominent island of 'UV red' stars surrounded by 'UV blue' stars in the diagnostic (NUV–g), (g – i) color diagram. We find that the subpopulation composing this island is mainly horizontal branch stars. These objects do not exhibit UV excesses and therefore have UV colors typical for their spectral types. This subpopulation appears 'red' in the UV only because the stars' colors are not pulled to the blue by the inclusion of UVe stars.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
  2. Johns Hopkins University, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22340212
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astronomical Journal (New York, N.Y. Online); Journal Volume: 147; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; CATALOGS; CHROMOSPHERE; COLOR; CORRECTIONS; DENSITY; DISTRIBUTION; ECLIPSE; EVOLUTION; FAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; GALAXIES; INCLUSIONS; NEAR ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; PHOTOMETRY; SATELLITES; SIMULATION; SKY; SPACE; SPECTRA; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION; WHITE DWARF STARS