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Title: STELLAR KINEMATICS AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF VIRGO CLUSTER DWARF EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES FROM THE SMAKCED PROJECT. II. THE SURVEY AND A SYSTEMATIC ANALYSIS OF KINEMATIC ANOMALIES AND ASYMMETRIES

We present spatially resolved kinematics and global stellar populations and mass-to-light ratios for a sample of 39 dwarf early-type (dE) galaxies in the Virgo cluster studied as part of the SMAKCED stellar absorption-line spectroscopy and imaging survey. This sample is representative of the early-type population in the Virgo cluster in the absolute magnitude range –19.0 < M{sub r} < –16.0 and of all morphological subclasses found in this galaxy population. For each dE, we measure the rotation curve and velocity dispersion profile and fit an analytic function to the rotation curve. We study the significance of the departure of the rotation curve from the best-fit analytic function (poorly fit) and of the difference between the approaching and receding sides of the rotation curve (asymmetry). Our sample includes two dEs with kinematically decoupled cores that have been previously reported. We find that 62 ± 8% (23 out of the 39) of the dEs have a significant anomaly in their rotation curve. Analysis of the images reveals photometric anomalies for most galaxies. However, there is no clear correlation between the significance of the photometric and kinematic anomalies. We measure age-sensitive (H{sub β} and H{sub γA}) and metallicity sensitive (Fe4668 and Mgb) Lickmore » spectral indices in the LIS-5 Å system. This population of galaxies exhibits a wide range of ages and metallicities; we also find that 4 dEs show clear evidence of emission partially filling in the Balmer absorption lines. Finally, we estimate the total masses and dark matter fractions of the dEs and plot them in the mass-size, the mass-velocity dispersion, and the fundamental plane scaling relations. The dEs seem to be the bridge between massive early-type galaxies and dSphs, and have a median total mass within the R{sub e} of log M{sub e} = 9.1 ± 0.2 and a median dark matter fraction within the R{sub e} of f {sub DM} = 46 ± 18%. Any formation model for the dE galaxy class must account for this diversity of kinematic and photometric anomalies and stellar populations.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ;  [5] ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] ;  [11] ;  [12] ;  [13] ; ;  [14] ;  [15]
  1. UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)
  2. Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, Postbus 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands)
  3. Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Université d'Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR 7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, 13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France)
  4. Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
  5. Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain)
  6. Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States)
  7. Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)
  8. Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)
  9. European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748, Garching (Germany)
  10. Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia)
  11. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)
  12. Departamento de Astrofísica y Física de la Atmósfera, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain)
  13. Department of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria)
  14. Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, PO Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland)
  15. Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22340127
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal, Supplement Series; Journal Volume: 215; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY; ANALYTIC FUNCTIONS; ASYMMETRY; CORRELATIONS; DIAGRAMS; GALAXIES; GALAXY CLUSTERS; IMAGES; MASS; METALLICITY; NONLUMINOUS MATTER; PHOTOMETRY; ROTATION; STAR CLUSTERS; VISIBLE RADIATION