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Title: A method to estimate the fractional fat volume within a ROI of a breast biopsy for WAXS applications: Animal tissue evaluation

Purpose: To develop a method to estimate the mean fractional volume of fat (ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}) within a region of interest (ROI) of a tissue sample for wide-angle x-ray scatter (WAXS) applications. A scatter signal from the ROI was obtained and use of ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a WAXS fat subtraction model provided a way to estimate the differential linear scattering coefficient μ{sub s} of the remaining fatless tissue. Methods: The efficacy of the method was tested using animal tissue from a local butcher shop. Formalin fixed samples, 5 mm in diameter 4 mm thick, were prepared. The two main tissue types were fat and meat (fibrous). Pure as well as composite samples consisting of a mixture of the two tissue types were analyzed. For the latter samples, ν{sub fat} for the tissue columns of interest were extracted from corresponding pixels in CCD digital x-ray images using a calibration curve. The means ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} were then calculated for use in a WAXS fat subtraction model. For the WAXS measurements, the samples were interrogated with a 2.7 mm diameter 50 kV beam and the 6° scattered photons were detected with a CdTe detector subtending a solid angle of 7.75 ×more » 10{sup −5} sr. Using the scatter spectrum, an estimate of the incident spectrum, and a scatter model, μ{sub s} was determined for the tissue in the ROI. For the composite samples, a WAXS fat subtraction model was used to estimate the μ{sub s} of the fibrous tissue in the ROI. This signal was compared to μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue obtained using a pure fibrous sample. Results: For chicken and beef composites, ν{sup ¯}{sub fat}=0.33±0.05 and 0.32 ± 0.05, respectively. The subtractions of these fat components from the WAXS composite signals provided estimates of μ{sub s} for chicken and beef fibrous tissue. The differences between the estimates and μ{sub s} of fibrous obtained with a pure sample were calculated as a function of the momentum transfer x. A t-test showed that the mean of the differences did not vary from zero in a statistically significant way thereby validating the methods. Conclusions: The methodology to estimate ν{sup ¯}{sub fat} in a ROI of a tissue sample via CCD x-ray imaging was quantitatively accurate. The WAXS fat subtraction model allowed μ{sub s} of fibrous tissue to be obtained from a ROI which had some fat. The fat estimation method coupled with the WAXS models can be used to compare μ{sub s} coefficients of fibroglandular and cancerous breast tissue.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)
  2. Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)
  3. Department of Physics, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6, Canada and Biomolecular Sciences Program, Laurentian University, 935 Ramsey Lake Road, Sudbury, Ontario P3E 2C6 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22320373
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Physics; Journal Volume: 41; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Association of Physicists in Medicine; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
46 INSTRUMENTATION RELATED TO NUCLEAR SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY; 60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ANIMAL TISSUES; BEAMS; BIOPSY; CALIBRATION; CDTE SEMICONDUCTOR DETECTORS; CHARGE-COUPLED DEVICES; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; DIAGRAMS; FATS; FUNCTIONS; MAMMARY GLANDS; MEAT; MIXTURES; PHOTONS; PLANT TISSUES; SCATTERING; SOLIDS; SPECTRA; WAXES; X RADIATION