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Title: Application of cluster-plus-glue-atom model to barrierless Cu–Ni–Ti and Cu–Ni–Ta films

To improve the thermal stability of copper and avoid its diffusion into surrounding dielectrics or interfacial reactions with them, the authors applied the cluster-plus-glue-atom model to investigate barrierless Cu–Ni–M (M = Ti or Ta) seed layers. The dissolution of the third element (Ti or Ta) in the Cu lattice with the aid of Ni significantly improved the thermal stability of the Cu seed layer. The appropriate M/Ni (M = Ti or Ta) ratio was selected to obtain a low resistivity: the resistivity was as low as 2.5 μΩ cm for the (Ti{sub 1.5/13.5}Ni{sub 12/13.5}){sub 0.3}Cu{sub 99.7} film and 2.8 μΩ cm for the (Ta{sub 1.1/13.1}Ni{sub 12/13.1}){sub 0.4}Cu{sub 99.6} film after annealing at 500 °C for 1 h. After annealing at 500 °C for 40 h, the two films remained stable without forming a Cu{sub 3}Si compound. The authors confirmed that the range of applications of the cluster-plus-glue-atom model could be extended. Therefore, a third element M with negative enthalpies of mixing with both Cu and Ni could be selected, under the premise that the mixing enthalpy of M–Ni is more negative than that of M–Cu.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion and Electron Beams (Dalian University of Technology), Ministry of Education, Dalian 116024 (China)
  2. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University of Science and Technology, Taipei 10607, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22318075
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology. A, Vacuum, Surfaces and Films; Journal Volume: 32; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Vacuum Society; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; COPPER; COPPER COMPOUNDS; DIFFUSION; FILMS; MIXING HEAT; NICKEL; SILICON COMPOUNDS; TANTALUM