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Title: A strategy to stabilise the local structure of Ti{sup 4+} and Zn{sup 2+} species against aging in TiO{sub 2}/aluminium-doped ZnO bi-layers for applications in hybrid solar cells

We explore a strategy to counteract aging issues in TiO{sub 2}/aluminium-doped ZnO bi-layers used in hybrid solar cells photo-anodes, mainly related to Zn diffusion in the TiO{sub 2} matrix. Different Ti{sup 4+} and Zn{sup 2+} local structures within the anatase grains and along the film thickness were found as a function of post-deposition annealing treatments in the range between 200 °C and 500 °C by synchrotron radiation extended x-ray absorption fine structure analyses. In particular, in the 500 °C-treated sample, diffusion of zinc species along the TiO{sub 2} grain-boundaries has been observed with aging (3 years). In contrast, a mild thermal budget at 200 °C favours a proper atomic arrangement of the zinc-containing anatase lattice which reduces Zn diffusion, thus guaranteeing a good stability with aging.
Authors:
; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. CNR-IMM Zona Industriale VIII Strada 5, 95121 Catania (Italy)
  2. Università degli studi di Catania and INSTM UdR Catania V.le A. Doria 6, Catania (Italy)
  3. Synchrotron SOLEIL, L'Orme des Merisiers, Saint-Aubin BP 48, 91192, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22314578
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 5; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ABSORPTION; AGING; ALUMINIUM; ANNEALING; ANODES; DEPOSITION; DIFFUSION; DOPED MATERIALS; FILMS; FINE STRUCTURE; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; LAYERS; SOLAR CELLS; THICKNESS; TITANIUM IONS; TITANIUM OXIDES; X RADIATION; ZINC IONS; ZINC OXIDES