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Title: Nanometer-scale temperature imaging for independent observation of Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices

This paper reports a technique for independent observation of nanometer-scale Joule heating and thermoelectric effects, using atomic force microscopy (AFM) based measurements of nanometer-scale temperature fields. When electrical current flows through nanoscale devices and contacts the temperature distribution is governed by both Joule and thermoelectric effects. When the device is driven by an electrical current that is both periodic and bipolar, the temperature rise due to the Joule effect is at a different harmonic than the temperature rise due to the Peltier effect. An AFM tip scanning over the device can simultaneously measure all of the relevant harmonic responses, such that the Joule effect and the Peltier effect can be independently measured. Here we demonstrate the efficacy of the technique by measuring Joule and Peltier effects in phase change memory devices. By comparing the observed temperature responses of these working devices, we measure the device thermopower, which is in the range of 30 ± 3 to 250 ± 10 μV K{sup −1}. This technique could facilitate improved measurements of thermoelectric phenomena and properties at the nanometer-scale.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)
  2. Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)
  3. (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22314458
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Review of Scientific Instruments; Journal Volume: 85; Journal Issue: 9; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 42 ENGINEERING; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; ELECTRIC CURRENTS; JOULE HEATING; MEMORY DEVICES; NANOSTRUCTURES; PHASE CHANGE MATERIALS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION; THERMOELECTRIC HEATERS