skip to main content

Title: Cathode materials review

The electrochemical potential of cathode materials defines the positive side of the terminal voltage of a battery. Traditionally, cathode materials are the energy-limiting or voltage-limiting electrode. One of the first electrochemical batteries, the voltaic pile invented by Alessandro Volta in 1800 (Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 90, 403-431) had a copper-zinc galvanic element with a terminal voltage of 0.76 V. Since then, the research community has increased capacity and voltage for primary (nonrechargeable) batteries and round-trip efficiency for secondary (rechargeable) batteries. Successful secondary batteries have been the lead-acid with a lead oxide cathode and a terminal voltage of 2.1 V and later the NiCd with a nickel(III) oxide-hydroxide cathode and a 1.2 V terminal voltage. The relatively low voltage of those aqueous systems and the low round-trip efficiency due to activation energies in the conversion reactions limited their use. In 1976, Wittingham (J. Electrochem. Soc., 123, 315) and Besenhard (J. Power Sources 1(3), 267) finally enabled highly reversible redox reactions by intercalation of lithium ions instead of by chemical conversion. In 1980, Goodenough and Mizushima (Mater. Res. Bull. 15, 783-789) demonstrated a high-energy and high-power LiCoO{sub 2} cathode, allowing for an increase of terminal voltage far beyond 3 V. Over themore » past four decades, the international research community has further developed cathode materials of many varieties. Current state-of-the-art cathodes demonstrate voltages beyond any known electrolyte stability window, bringing electrolyte research once again to the forefront of battery research.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1 Bethel Valley Road, MS6472 Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6472 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22311254
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1597; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: 1. international Freiberg conference on electrochemical storage materials, Freiberg (Germany), 3-4 Jun 2013; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
25 ENERGY STORAGE; ACTIVATION ENERGY; CAPACITY; CATHODES; COPPER; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; ELECTROLYTES; HYDROXIDES; LEAD OXIDES; LITHIUM IONS; NICKEL; REDOX REACTIONS