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Title: Probing bismuth ferrite nanoparticles by hard x-ray photoemission: Anomalous occurrence of metallic bismuth

We have investigated bismuth ferrite nanoparticles (∼75 nm and ∼155 nm) synthesized by a chemical method, using soft X-ray (1253.6 eV) and hard X-ray (3500, 5500, and 7500 eV) photoelectron spectroscopy. This provided an evidence for the variation of chemical state of bismuth in crystalline, phase pure nanoparticles. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis using Mg Kα (1253.6 eV) source showed that iron and bismuth were present in both Fe{sup 3+} and Bi{sup 3+} valence states as expected for bismuth ferrite. However, hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis of the bismuth ferrite nanoparticles using variable photon energies unexpectedly showed the presence of Bi{sup 0} valence state below the surface region, indicating that bismuth ferrite nanoparticles are chemically inhomogeneous in the radial direction. Consistently, small-angle X-ray scattering reveals a core-shell structure for these radial inhomogeneous nanoparticles.
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ;  [4]
  1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Dr. Homi Bhabha Road, Pune 411008 (India)
  2. DESY Photon Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, 22607 Hamburg (Germany)
  3. Hefei National Laboratory for Physical Sciences at the Microscale, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)
  4. National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, 101, Hsin-Ann Road, Science Park, Hsinchu 3007-6, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22310842
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 105; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; BISMUTH COMPOUNDS; BISMUTH IONS; CHEMICAL STATE; EV RANGE; FERRITES; HARD X RADIATION; IRON IONS; NANOPARTICLES; PHOTOEMISSION; SMALL ANGLE SCATTERING; SOFT X RADIATION; SURFACES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY