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Title: Electron diffraction and high-resolution electron microscopy studies on layered Li{sub 2−δ}(Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}){sub 1+δ}O{sub 3}

The structure of Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3}–LiCoO{sub 2} solid solutions or Li{sub 2−δ}(Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}){sub 1+δ}O{sub 3} (LMCO) which are promising lithium-battery cathodes was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses indicate that Li{sub 1.6}Mn{sub 0.2}Co{sub 1.2}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 1.7}Mn{sub 0.4}Co{sub 0.9}O{sub 3} take a rhombohedral (R3-bar m space group) structure, whereas Li{sub 1.85}Mn{sub 0.7}Co{sub 0.45}O{sub 3} and Li{sub 1.95}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} take a monoclinic (C2/m) superstructure. HREM studies on those samples reveal that all of the observed crystallites in sample Li{sub 1.95}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 3} contain sharp stripe structures due to the planar defects along the c{sub h}-axis (stacking direction of the hexagonal close-packed planes) of parent rhombohedral R3-bar m cell. Such stripe structures become faint with increasing x, Co content. The origin of the planar defects is mainly attributed not to the different structures but to the different local orientations of the monoclinic LMCO. Local disordering of Li and (Mn,Co) in (Li,Mn,Co) planes is developed with increasing x and the structures are transformed from C2/m to R3-bar m. The alternative (Li,Mn,Co)-plane stacking structure, trigonal P3{sub 1}12 LMCO, was occasionally observed. However, only P3{sub 1}12 LMCO platelets with a thickness of a single unit cellmore » were detected. - Graphical abstract: An HREM image for Li{sub 1.95}(Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15})O{sub 3} and schematic drawings of C2/m and P3{sub 1}12 Li{sub 2}MnO{sub 3} projected along the various zone axes. Each projected unit cell is indicated by rectangles and parallelograms . - Highlights: • Li{sub 2−δ}(Mn{sub 1−x}Co{sub x}){sub 1+δ}O{sub 3} was studied by high-resolution electron microscopy (HREM). • HREM studies revealed a large amount of planar defects in C2/m Li{sub 1.95}Mn{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.15}O{sub 3}. • The origin of the defects is the different local orientations of the C2/m platelets. • P3{sub 1}12 platelets with only single unit cell sequence were detected.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Superconducting Wire Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)
  2. Battery Materials Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)
  3. Superconducting Properties Unit, National Institute for Materials Science, 1-2-1 Sengen, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0047 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22309057
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 203; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CRYSTAL DEFECTS; ELECTRON DIFFRACTION; HCP LATTICES; LITHIUM; MONOCLINIC LATTICES; SOLID SOLUTIONS; SPACE GROUPS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; TRIGONAL LATTICES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION