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Title: Observation of atomic scale compositional and displacive modulations in incommensurate melilite electrolytes

The paradigm that functional materials are adequately described as three-dimensional crystal structures is not universally tenable. Gallate melilites are efficient oxide ion conductors at intermediate temperatures (∼750 °C) with non-rational crystallographic modulations presumed to play a key role in significantly enhancing oxygen mobility. Lattice distortions associated with incommensuration are usually extrapolated from diffraction analysis of volumes greatly exceeding the scale of modulation. Therefore, opportunities for making direct nanometric measurements are exceptionally valuable for correlating structure with function. In [CaLn]{sub 2}[Ga]{sub 2}[Ga{sub 2}O{sub 7}]{sub 2} (Ln=Nd, La) melilites, atomic displacive and compositional modulation waves can be imaged by high angle annular dark field and bright field scanning transmission electron microscopy with contrast quantified through electron scattering simulation. Here, we present atomic scale observations of (3+2)-dimensional modulations in gallate melilites which expands our understanding of the ion conduction mechanism and provides guidance for enhancing the performance of solid oxide fuel cells through crystal chemical tailoring. - Highlights: • Characterise the (3+2)-dimensional melilite electrolytes using STEM technique. • Direct observation on displacive and compositional modulation in melilites. • Structural flexibility reduces when increasing interstitial oxygen. • Domain-like incommensurate modulation model is proposed.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [1]
  1. Division of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanyang Technological University (Singapore)
  2. Monash Centre for Electron Microscopy, Monash University, Melbourne (Australia)
  3. Singapore Institute of Manufacturing Technology, Agency for Science Technology and Research (Singapore)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22309049
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 203; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALLOGRAPHY; CRYSTALS; DIFFRACTION; ELECTROLYTES; ELECTRONS; FLEXIBILITY; GALLIUM OXIDES; IONIC CONDUCTIVITY; NANOSTRUCTURES; SIMULATION; SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY