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Title: Impact of annealing on the chemical structure and morphology of the thin-film CdTe/ZnO interface

To enable an understanding and optimization of the optoelectronic behavior of CdTe-ZnO nanocomposites, the morphological and chemical properties of annealed CdTe/ZnO interface structures were studied. For that purpose, CdTe layers of varying thickness (4–24 nm) were sputter-deposited on 100 nm-thick ZnO films on surface-oxidized Si(100) substrates. The morphological and chemical effects of annealing at 525 °C were investigated using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray-excited Auger electron spectroscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. We find a decrease of the Cd and Te surface concentration after annealing, parallel to an increase in Zn and O signals. While the as-deposited film surfaces show small grains (100 nm diameter) of CdTe on the ZnO surface, annealing induces a significant growth of these grains and separation into islands (with diameters as large as 1 μm). The compositional change at the surface is more pronounced for Cd than for Te, as evidenced using component peak fitting of the Cd and Te 3d XPS peaks. The modified Auger parameters of Cd and Te are also calculated to further elucidate the local chemical environment before and after annealing. Together, these results suggest the formation of tellurium and cadmium oxide species at the CdTe/ZnO interface upon annealing, whichmore » can create a barrier for charge carrier transport, and might allow for a deliberate modification of interface properties with suitably chosen thermal treatment parameters.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [6] ;  [1] ;  [5] ;  [5] ;
  1. Department of Chemistry, University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV), Las Vegas, Nevada 89154 (United States)
  2. Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States)
  3. Solar Energy Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH (HZB), 14109 Berlin (Germany)
  4. (ALS), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
  5. (KIT), 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)
  6. (WIWeB), Institutsweg 1, 85435 Erding (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308736
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ANNEALING; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; AUGER ELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; CADMIUM OXIDES; CADMIUM TELLURIDES; CHARGE CARRIERS; COMPOSITE MATERIALS; ELECTRO-OPTICAL EFFECTS; INTERFACES; LAYERS; NANOCOMPOSITES; NANOSTRUCTURES; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SUBSTRATES; SURFACES; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0400-1000 K; THIN FILMS; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY; X-RAY SPECTROSCOPY; ZINC OXIDES