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Title: Indium tin oxide-free transparent and conductive electrode based on SnO{sub x} | Ag | SnO{sub x} for organic solar cells

A SnO{sub x} | Ag | SnO{sub x} multilayer deposited by E-beam evaporation is proposed as transparent anode for a (poly-3-hexylthiophene):[6,6]-phenyl-C{sub 61}-butyric acid methyl ester (P3HT:PCBM) bulk heterojunction based Organic Solar Cell (OSC). Such multilayers are studied and manufactured with the objective to give to the electrode its best conductivity and transparency in the visible spectral range. A transfer matrix method numerical optimization of the thicknesses of each layer of the electrode is developed to limit the number of test samples which would have been manufactured whether an empirical method was chosen. Optical characterization of the deposited SnO{sub x} and Ag thin films is performed to determine the dispersion of the complex refractive indices which are used as input parameters in the model. A satisfying agreement between numerical and experimental optical properties is found. The bare tri-layer electrodes show low sheet resistance (as low as 6.7 Ω/□) and the whole Glass | SnO{sub x} | Ag | SnO{sub x} structure presents a mean transparency on 400–700 nm spectral band as high as 67%. The multilayer is then numerically studied as anode for a P3HT:PCBM bulk heterojunction based OSC. Intrinsic absorption inside the sole active layer is calculated giving the possibilitymore » to perform optical optimization on the intrinsic absorption efficiency inside the active area by considering the media embedding the electrodes. An additional study using the morphology of the silver inserted between both oxide layers as input data is performed with a finite difference time domain 3D-method to improve the accordance between optical measurements and numerical results.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ; ;  [1]
  1. CROSSLUX, Immeuble CCE, Avenue Georges Vacher, ZI Rousset Peynier, 13106 Rousset Cedex (France)
  2. (France)
  3. Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence-IM2NP, Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, UMR 7334, Domaine Universitaire de Saint-Jérôme, Service 231, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France)
  4. Institut Matériaux Microélectronique Nanosciences de Provence-IM2NP, Université de Toulon, CNRS, UMR 7334, Bâtiment R, BP 132, 83957 La Garde Cedex (France)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308708
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ABSORPTION; ANODES; DISPERSIONS; EFFICIENCY; ELECTRON BEAMS; EVAPORATION; GLASS; HETEROJUNCTIONS; INDIUM OXIDES; LAYERS; OPACITY; OPTIMIZATION; ORGANIC SOLAR CELLS; REFRACTIVE INDEX; SILVER; THICKNESS; THIN FILMS; TIN ADDITIONS; TIN OXIDES; TRANSFER MATRIX METHOD