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Title: Controlling ion fluxes during reactive sputter-deposition of SnO{sub 2}:F

Magnetron sputtering of fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) is a scalable deposition method for large-area transparent conducting films used in fenestration, photovoltaics, and other applications. The electrical conductivity of sputtered FTO is, however, lower than that of spray-pyrolized FTO because of the ion damage induced by high energy ions leading to a reduction of the crystal quality in sputtered FTO films. In this study, various ion species present during the reactive sputtering of a metallic tin target in a mixed Ar/O{sub 2}/CF{sub 4} atmosphere are systematically characterized by energy and mass spectrometry, and possible ways of controlling the ion fluxes are explored. Ion energy distribution functions (IEDFs) of the negative ions F{sup −} and O{sup −} exhibit large peaks at an energy corresponding to the full target voltage. Although the applied partial pressure of CF{sub 4} is about 1/30 than that of O{sub 2}, the obtained IEDFs of F{sup −} and O{sup −} have comparable peak height, which can be attributed to a higher electronegativity of F. The IEDFs of positively charged O{sup +}, O{sub 2}{sup +}, Ar{sup +}, and Sn{sup +} species have their peaks around 2–8 eV. To control ion fluxes a solenoid or permanent magnets were placed between themore » target and the mass spectrometer. The flux of positive ions could be varied by several orders of magnitude as a function of the applied current through the solenoid, whereas the high-energy (>100 eV) negative F{sup −} and O{sup −} ions were not notably deflected. By using permanent magnets with the B-field orthogonal to the ion trajectory, the flux of O{sup −} ions could be decreased by two orders and the exposure to the high-energy F{sup −} ions was completely suppressed.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Empa—Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Laboratory for Thin Films and Photovoltaics, Überlandstrasse 129, 8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland)
  2. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308460
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ARGON IONS; CARBON TETRAFLUORIDE; DEPOSITION; DISTRIBUTION FUNCTIONS; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRIC CONDUCTIVITY; ELECTRONEGATIVITY; ENERGY SPECTRA; FILMS; FLUORINE ADDITIONS; MAGNETRONS; MASS SPECTROMETERS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; OXYGEN IONS; PERMANENT MAGNETS; PHOTOVOLTAIC EFFECT; SPUTTERING; TIN OXIDES