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Title: Investigation of the impact of insulator material on the performance of dissimilar electrode metal-insulator-metal diodes

The performance of thin film metal-insulator-metal (MIM) diodes is investigated for a variety of large and small electron affinity insulators using ultrasmooth amorphous metal as the bottom electrode. Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, ZrO{sub 2}, HfO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2} amorphous insulators are deposited via atomic layer deposition (ALD). Reflection electron energy loss spectroscopy (REELS) is utilized to measure the band-gap energy (E{sub G}) and energy position of intrinsic sub-gap defect states for each insulator. E{sub G} of as-deposited ALD insulators are found to be Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 3.8 eV, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} = 4.4 eV, ZrO{sub 2} = 5.4 eV, HfO{sub 2} = 5.6 eV, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} = 6.4 eV, and SiO{sub 2} = 8.8 eV with uncertainty of ±0.2 eV. Current vs. voltage asymmetry, non-linearity, turn-on voltage, and dominant conduction mechanisms are compared. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2} are found to operate based on Fowler-Nordheim tunneling. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} shows the highest asymmetry. ZrO{sub 2}, Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, and Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} based diodes are found to be dominated by Frenkel-Poole emission at large biases and exhibit lower asymmetry. The electrically estimated trap energy levels for defects that dominate Frenkel-Poole conduction are found to be consistent with the energy levels of surface oxygen vacancy defects observed in REELS measurements. Formore » HfO{sub 2}, conduction is found to be a mix of trap assisted tunneling and Frenkel-Poole emission. Insulator selection criteria in regards to MIM diodes applications are discussed.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)
  2. Logic Technology Development, Intel Corporation, Hillsboro, Oregon 97124 (United States)
  3. Ocotillo Materials Laboratory, Intel Corporation, Chandler, Arizona 85248 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308454
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 116; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ALUMINIUM OXIDES; AMORPHOUS STATE; ASYMMETRY; CRYSTAL DEFECTS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRODES; EMISSION; ENERGY-LOSS SPECTROSCOPY; EV RANGE; HAFNIUM OXIDES; METALS; NIOBIUM OXIDES; REFLECTION; SILICON OXIDES; TANTALUM OXIDES; THIN FILMS; TRAPS; TUNNEL EFFECT; VACANCIES; ZIRCONIUM OXIDES