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Title: An alternative explanation of the change in T-dependence of the effective Debye-Waller factor at T{sub c} or T{sub B}

The cusp-like temperature dependence of the Debye-Waller factor or non-ergodicity parameter f{sub Q}(T) at some temperature T{sub c} above T{sub g} found by experiments in several fragile glassformers has been considered as critical evidence for validity of the ideal Mode Coupling Theory (MCT). A comprehensive review of experimental data of f{sub Q}(T) and beyond brings out various problems of the MCT predictions. For example, the molten salt, 0.4Ca(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}-0.6KNO{sub 3} (CKN), was the first glassformer measured by neutron scattering to verify the cusp-like behavior of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} predicted by ideal MCT. While the fits of the other scaling laws of MCT to viscosity, light scattering, and dielectric relaxation data all give T{sub c} in the range from 368 to 375 K, there is no evidence of cusp-like behavior of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} from more accurate neutron scattering data obtained later on by Mezei and Russina [J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 11, A341 (1999)] at temperatures below 400 K. In several molecular glass-formers, experiments have found at temperatures below T{sub c} that [1−f{sub Q}(T)] is manifested as nearly constant loss (NCL) in the frequency dependent susceptibility. The NCL persists down to below T{sub g} and ismore » not predicted by the ideal MCT. No clear evidence of the change of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at any T{sub c} was found in intermediate and strong glassformers, although ideal MCT does not distinguish fragile and strong glassformers in predicting the critical behavior of f{sub Q}(T) a priori. Experiments found f{sub Q}(T) changes T-dependence not only at T{sub c} but also at the glass transition temperature T{sub g}. The changes of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} and T{sub g} are accompanied by corresponding changes of dynamic variables and thermodynamic quantities at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c} and at T{sub g}. The dynamic variables include the relaxation time τ{sub α}(T), the non-exponentiality parameter n(T), and the generalized fragility m(T) of the structural α-relaxation. The thermodynamic quantities are the free volume deduced from positron annihilation spectroscopy, and the configurational entropy obtained from adiabatic calorimetry measurements. These changes of dynamic variables and thermodynamic quantities in temperature dependence at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c} occur concurrently with the change of f{sub Q}(T) and suggest the effects are related, and have to be explained altogether. Since this task cannot be carried out by the ideal MCT, we have provided a different interpretation of f{sub Q}(T) and an alternative explanation of the change in its T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c} as well as the other dynamic variables. We show f{sub Q}(T) originates from the dissipation of the molecules while caged by the anharmonic intermolecular potential, and manifested as the NCL at lower temperatures. The cusp-like change of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} originates from the corresponding change of free volume and configurational entropy at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c}, which also explains the simultaneous changes of the T-dependencies of the other dynamic variables. The alternative explanation is able to resolve the conundrum in CKN because T{sub B} is ≥400 K, and hence the change of T-dependence of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} ≈ T{sub B} was not observed in data taken at temperatures lower than 400 K by Mezei and Russina. The alternative explanation also can rationalize the difference between fragile and non-fragile glassformers in the strength of the observed changes of f{sub Q}(T) at T{sub c} and T{sub g} as well as the other dynamic quantities at T{sub B} ≈ T{sub c} and T{sub g}.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Pisa, Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)
  2. (Italy)
  3. Tokyo Institute of Technology, Yokohama 226-8502 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22308409
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Chemical Physics; Journal Volume: 141; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CALORIMETRY; COUPLING; DEBYE-WALLER FACTOR; ENTROPY; FREQUENCY DEPENDENCE; LIGHT SCATTERING; MOLECULES; MOLTEN SALTS; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; POSITRONS; RELAXATION TIME; SPECTROSCOPY; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TRANSITION TEMPERATURE