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Title: Pressure-assisted fabrication of organic light emitting diodes with MoO{sub 3} hole-injection layer materials

In this study, pressures of ∼5 to ∼8 MPa were applied to organic light emitting diodes containing either evaporated molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) or spin-coated poly(3,4-ethylene dioxythiophene) doped with poly(styrene sulphonate) (PEDOT:PSS) hole-injection layers (HILs). The threshold voltages for both devices were reduced by about half, after the application of pressure. Furthermore, in an effort to understand the effects of pressure treatment, finite element simulations were used to study the evolution of surface contact between the HIL and emissive layer (EML) under pressure. The blister area due to interfacial impurities was also calculated. This was shown to reduce by about half, when the applied pressures were between ∼5 and 8 MPa. The finite element simulations used Young's modulus measurements of MoO{sub 3} that were measured using the nanoindentation technique. They also incorporated measurements of the adhesion energy between the HIL and EML (measured by force microscopy during atomic force microscopy). Within a fracture mechanics framework, the implications of the results are then discussed for the pressure-assisted fabrication of robust organic electronic devices.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [4] ;  [5] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [5]
  1. The Princeton Institute for the Science and Technology of Materials (PRISM), Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States)
  2. (United States)
  3. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)
  4. Physics Advanced Laboratory, Sheda Science and Technology Complex, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)
  5. (Nigeria)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22303998
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 23; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ADHESION; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; DOPED MATERIALS; ELECTRIC POTENTIAL; ELECTRONIC EQUIPMENT; ETHYLENE; FINITE ELEMENT METHOD; HOLES; IMPURITIES; INJECTION; LAYERS; LIGHT EMITTING DIODES; MOLYBDENUM OXIDES; ORGANIC SEMICONDUCTORS; PRESSURE RANGE MEGA PA; SIMULATION; SPIN; SULFONATES; SURFACES; YOUNG MODULUS