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Title: Evaluation of Solvita compost stability and maturity tests for assessment of quality of end-products from mixed latrine style compost toilets

Highlights: • Solvita® stability and maturity tests used on composting toilet end-product. • Solvita® ammonia better suited in evaluation of feedstock suitability for vermicomposting. • No clear value of Solvita® stability test due to prevalent inhibition of decomposition by ammonia. - Abstract: It is challenging and expensive to monitor and test decentralized composting toilet systems, yet critical to prevent the mismanagement of potentially harmful and pathogenic end-product. Recent studies indicate that mixed latrine composting toilets can be inhibited by high ammonia content, a product of urea hydrolysis. Urine-diverting vermicomposting toilets are better able to accomplish the goals of remote site human waste management by facilitating the consumption of fecal matter by earthworms, which are highly sensitive to ammonia. The reliability of Solvita® compost stability and maturity tests were evaluated as a means of determining feedstock suitability for vermicomposting (ammonia) and end-product stability/completeness (carbon dioxide). A significant linear regression between Solvita® ammonia and free ammonia gas was found. Solvita® ranking of maturity did not correspond to ranking assigned by ammonium:nitrate standards. Solvita® ammonia values 4 and 5 contained ammonia levels below earthworm toxicity limits in 80% and 100% of samples respectively indicative of their use in evaluating feedstock suitability for vermicomposting.more » Solvita® stability tests did not correlate with carbon dioxide evolution tests nor ranking of stability by the same test, presumably due to in situ inhibition of decomposition and microbial respiration by ammonia which were reported by the Solvita® CO{sub 2} test as having high stability values.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. University of British Columbia, Department of Geography, 1984 West Mall, Vancouver, Canada V6T 1Z2 (Canada)
  2. Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of British Columbia, 2360 East Mall, Vancouver, B.C., Canada V6T 1Z3 (Canada)
  3. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7032, SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22300369
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; AMMONIA; AMMONIUM NITRATES; CARBON DIOXIDE; COMPOSTING; HYDROLYSIS; RELIABILITY; STABILITY; TOILETS; UREA