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Title: Estimating water content in an active landfill with the aid of GPR

Highlights: • Limited information in the literature on the use of GPR to measure in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method allows measurement of in situ water content in a landfill. • Developed GPR method is appealing to waste management professionals operating landfills. - Abstract: Landfill gas (LFG) receives a great deal of attention due to both negative and positive environmental impacts, global warming and a green energy source, respectively. However, predicting the quantity of LFG generated at a given landfill, whether active or closed is difficult due to the heterogeneities present in waste, and the lack of accurate in situ waste parameters like water content. Accordingly, ground penetrating radar (GPR) was evaluated as a tool for estimating in situ water content. Due to the large degree of subsurface heterogeneity and the electrically conductive clay cap covering landfills, both of which affect the transmission of the electromagnetic pulses, there is much scepticism concerning the use of GPR to quantify in situ water content within a municipal landfill. Two landfills were studied. The first landfill was used to develop the measurement protocols, while the second landfill provided a means of confirming these protocols. GPR measurements were initiallymore » completed using the surface GPR approach, but the lack of success led to the use of borehole (BH) GPR. Both zero offset profiling (ZOP) and multiple offset gathers (MOG) modes were tried, with the results indicating that BH GPR using the ZOP mode is the most simple and efficient method to measure in situ water content. The best results were obtained at a separation distance of 2 m, where higher the water content, smaller the effective separation distance. However, an increase in water content did appear to increase the accuracy of the GPR measurements. For the effective separation distance of 2 m at both landfills, the difference between GPR and lab measured water contents were reasonable at 33.9% for the drier landfill and 18.1% for the wetter landfill. Infiltration experiments also showed the potential to measure small increases in water content.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Region of Waterloo Waste Management Division, 925 Erb Street West, Waterloo, ON N2J 3Z4 (Canada)
  2. School of Engineering, University of Guelph, Guelph, ON N1G 2W1 (Canada)
  3. Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22300306
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Waste Management; Journal Volume: 33; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ACCURACY; CLAYS; ELECTROMAGNETIC PULSES; ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS; GREENHOUSE EFFECT; HUMIDITY; LANDFILL GAS; METHANE; RADAR; RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES; SANITARY LANDFILLS