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Title: Trace element content and magnetic properties of commercial HOPG samples studied by ion beam microscopy and SQUID magnetometry

In this study, the impurity concentration and magnetic response of nine highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) samples with different grades and from different providers were determined using ion beam microscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Apart from sideface contaminations in the as-received state, bulk contamination of the samples in most cases consists of disk-shaped micron-sized particles made of Ti and V with an additional Fe contamination around the grain perimeter. The saturation magnetization typically increases with Fe concentration, however, there is no simple correlation between Fe content and magnetic moment. The saturation magnetization of one, respectively six, out of nine samples clearly exceeds the maximum contribution from pure Fe or Fe{sub 3}C. For most samples the temperature dependence of the remanence decreases linearly with T – a dependence found previously for defect-induced magnetism (DIM) in HOPG. We conclude that apart from magnetic impurities, additional contribution to the ferromagnetic magnetization exists in pristine HOPG in agreement with previous studies. A comparative study between the results of ion beam microscopy and the commonly used EDX analysis shows clearly that EDX is not a reliable method for quantitative trace elemental analysis in graphite, clarifying weaknesses and discrepancies in the element concentrations given in the recentmore » literature.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1]
  1. Institute for Experimental Physics II, Universität Leipzig, Linnéstr. 5, 04103 Leipzig (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22300233
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Advances; Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 10; Other Information: (c) 2014 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CONTAMINATION; DEFECTS; GRAPHITE; IMPURITIES; ION BEAMS; MAGNETIC MOMENTS; MAGNETIC PROPERTIES; MAGNETISM; MAGNETIZATION; MICROSCOPY; PARTICLES; SATURATION; SQUID DEVICES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE