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Title: Correlating electroluminescence characterization and physics-based models of InGaN/GaN LEDs: Pitfalls and open issues

Electroluminescence (EL) characterization of InGaN/GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs), coupled with numerical device models of different sophistication, is routinely adopted not only to establish correlations between device efficiency and structural features, but also to make inferences about the loss mechanisms responsible for LED efficiency droop at high driving currents. The limits of this investigative approach are discussed here in a case study based on a comprehensive set of current- and temperature-dependent EL data from blue LEDs with low and high densities of threading dislocations (TDs). First, the effects limiting the applicability of simpler (closed-form and/or one-dimensional) classes of models are addressed, like lateral current crowding, vertical carrier distribution nonuniformity, and interband transition broadening. Then, the major sources of uncertainty affecting state-of-the-art numerical device simulation are reviewed and discussed, including (i) the approximations in the transport description through the multi-quantum-well active region, (ii) the alternative valence band parametrizations proposed to calculate the spontaneous emission rate, (iii) the difficulties in defining the Auger coefficients due to inadequacies in the microscopic quantum well description and the possible presence of extra, non-Auger high-current-density recombination mechanisms and/or Auger-induced leakage. In the case of the present LED structures, the application of three-dimensional numerical-simulation-based analysis to the ELmore » data leads to an explanation of efficiency droop in terms of TD-related and Auger-like nonradiative losses, with a C coefficient in the 10{sup −30} cm{sup 6}/s range at room temperature, close to the larger theoretical calculations reported so far. However, a study of the combined effects of structural and model uncertainties suggests that the C values thus determined could be overestimated by about an order of magnitude. This preliminary attempt at uncertainty quantification confirms, beyond the present case, the need for an improved description of carrier transport and microscopic radiative and nonradiative recombination mechanisms in device-level LED numerical models.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [5] ; ;  [6]
  1. Dipartimento di Elettronica e Telecomunicazioni, Politecnico di Torino, corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy)
  2. (Italy)
  3. Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell'Informazione, Università di Padova, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131 Padova (Italy)
  4. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Boston University, 8 Saint Mary's Street, 02215 Boston, MA (United States)
  5. Dipartimento di Scienze e Metodi dell'Ingegneria, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy)
  6. Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22300070
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Advances; Journal Volume: 4; Journal Issue: 6; Other Information: (c) 2014 Author(s); Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; CURRENT DENSITY; DENSITY; DISLOCATIONS; EFFICIENCY; ELECTROLUMINESCENCE; GALLIUM NITRIDES; LIGHT EMITTING DIODES; QUANTUM WELLS; RECOMBINATION; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE