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Title: Microscopic mechanisms of graphene electrolytic delamination from metal substrates

In this paper, hydrogen bubbling delamination of graphene (Gr) from copper using a strong electrolyte (KOH) water solution was performed, focusing on the effect of the KOH concentration (C{sub KOH}) on the Gr delamination rate. A factor of ∼10 decrease in the time required for the complete Gr delamination from Cu cathodes with the same geometry was found increasing C{sub KOH} from ∼0.05 M to ∼0.60 M. After transfer of the separated Gr membranes to SiO{sub 2} substrates by a highly reproducible thermo-compression printing method, an accurate atomic force microscopy investigation of the changes in Gr morphology as a function of C{sub KOH} was performed. Supported by these analyses, a microscopic model of the delamination process has been proposed, where a key role is played by graphene wrinkles acting as nucleation sites for H{sub 2} bubbles at the cathode perimeter. With this approach, the H{sub 2} supersaturation generated at the electrode for different electrolyte concentrations was estimated and the inverse dependence of t{sub d} on C{sub KOH} was quantitatively explained. Although developed in the case of Cu, this analysis is generally valid and can be applied to describe the electrolytic delamination of graphene from several metal substrates.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ; ;  [1] ;  [3]
  1. CNR-IMM, Strada VIII, 5 – 95121 Catania (Italy)
  2. (Italy)
  3. STMicroelectronics, Stradale Primosole, 50 – 95121 Catania (Italy)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22300052
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 23; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; CATHODES; COMPRESSION; COPPER; ELECTROLYTES; GRAPHENE; HYDROGEN; MEMBRANES; NUCLEATION; POTASSIUM HYDROXIDES; SILICON OXIDES; SUBSTRATES; SUPERSATURATION