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Title: Origin of stress gradients induced in capped, copper metallization

Stress gradients generated near the top surface of Cu thin films by capping layers, as measured using a combination of conventional and glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, exhibit heterogeneous behavior that is directly related to plastic anisotropy within the Cu grains. A comparison of stress gradients measured from several x-ray reflections to their corresponding Schmid factors yields a consistent, critical resolved shear stress. The results experimentally verify that dislocation-mediated plasticity is responsible for the creation of stress gradients at the Cu film/cap interface. Depth-dependent measurements reveal that the observed gradients are localized to within 200 nm of this interface.
Authors:
 [1]
  1. IBM T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, New York 10598 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22293031
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 8; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANISOTROPY; COPPER; DISLOCATIONS; INTERFACES; PLASTICITY; REFLECTION; SHEAR; STRESSES; SURFACES; THIN FILMS; X RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION