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Title: The contribution of heavy metals in cigarette smoke condensate to malignant transformation of breast epithelial cells and in vivo initiation of neoplasia through induction of a PI3K–AKT–NFκB cascade

Cigarette smoking is a crucial factor in the development and progression of multiple cancers including breast. Here, we report that repeated exposure to a fixed, low dose of cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) prepared from Indian cigarettes is capable of transforming normal breast epithelial cells, MCF-10A, and delineate the biochemical basis for cellular transformation. CSC transformed cells (MCF-10A-Tr) were capable of anchorage-independent growth, and their anchorage dependent growth and colony forming ability were higher compared to the non-transformed MCF-10A cells. Increased expression of biomarkers representative of oncogenic transformation (NRP-1, Nectin-4), and anti-apoptotic markers (PI3K, AKT, NFκB) were also noted in the MCF-10A-Tr cells. Short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of MCF-10A and MCF-10A-Tr cells revealed that transformed cells acquired allelic variation during transformation, and had become genetically distinct. MCF-10A-Tr cells formed solid tumors when implanted into the mammary fat pads of Balb/c mice. Data revealed that CSC contained approximately 1.011 μg Cd per cigarette equivalent, and Cd (0.0003 μg Cd/1 × 10{sup 7} cells) was also detected in the lysates from MCF-10A cells treated with 25 μg/mL CSC. In similar manner to CSC, CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells caused anchorage independent colony growth, higher expression of oncogenic proteins and increased PI3K–AKT–NFκBmore » protein expression. An increase in the expression of PI3K–AKT–NFκB was also noted in the mice xenografts. Interestingly, it was noted that CSC and CdCl{sub 2} treatment in MCF-10A cells increased ROS. Collectively, results suggest that heavy metals present in cigarettes of Indian origin may substantially contribute to tumorigenesis by inducing intercellular ROS accumulation and increased expression of PI3K, AKT and NFκB proteins. - Highlights: • Repeated exposure of CSC causes malignant transformation in MCF-10A. • MCF-10A-Tr cells showed a distinct STR profile and tumor inducing characteristics. • Increased expression of PI3K, AKT, and NFκB protein in MCF-10A-Tr and solid tumor. • Increased ROS and PI3K-AKT-NFκB proteins in smoke carcinogen exposed MCF-10A cells. • Cadmium may be a strong contributor to the transformation of MCF-10A cells.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Cancer Biology Division, KIIT School of Biotechnology, KIIT University, Campus-11, Patia, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751024 (India)
  2. (India)
  3. Department of Infection Biology, Institute of Life Science, Nalco Square, Bhubaneswar, Orissa 751021 (India)
  4. Department of Drug Discovery and Biomedical Sciences, South Carolina College of Pharmacy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22285567
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 274; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; BIOLOGICAL MARKERS; CADMIUM CHLORIDES; CARCINOGENS; CONDENSATES; HEAVY METALS; IN VIVO; MAMMARY GLANDS; MICE; NEOPLASMS; TOBACCO PRODUCTS; TOBACCO SMOKES