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Title: Case study on the utility of hepatic global gene expression profiling in the risk assessment of the carcinogen furan

Furan is a chemical hepatocarcinogen in mice and rats. Its previously postulated cancer mode of action (MOA) is chronic cytotoxicity followed by sustained regenerative proliferation; however, its molecular basis is unknown. To this end, we conducted toxicogenomic analysis of B3C6F1 mouse livers following three week exposures to non-carcinogenic (0, 1, 2 mg/kg bw) or carcinogenic (4 and 8 mg/kg bw) doses of furan. We saw enrichment for pathways responsible for cytotoxicity: stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) and death receptor (DR5 and TNF-alpha) signaling, and proliferation: extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) and TNF-alpha. We also noted the involvement of NF-kappaB and c-Jun in response to furan, which are genes that are known to be required for liver regeneration. Furan metabolism by CYP2E1 produces cis-2-butene-1,4-dial (BDA), which is required for ensuing cytotoxicity and oxidative stress. NRF2 is a master regulator of gene expression during oxidative stress and we suggest that chronic NFR2 activity and chronic inflammation may represent critical transition events between the adaptive (regeneration) and adverse (cancer) outcomes. Another objective of this study was to demonstrate the applicability of toxicogenomics data in quantitative risk assessment. We modeled benchmark doses for our transcriptional data and previously published cancer data, and observed consistency between themore » two. Margin of exposure values for both transcriptional and cancer endpoints were also similar. In conclusion, using furan as a case study we have demonstrated the value of toxicogenomics data in elucidating dose-dependent MOA transitions and in quantitative risk assessment. - Highlights: • Global gene expression changes in furan-exposed mouse livers were analyzed. • A molecular mode of action for furan-induced hepatocarcinogenesis is proposed. • Key pathways include NRF2, SAPK, ERK and death receptor signaling. • Important roles for TNF-alpha, c-Jun, and NF-κB in tumorigenesis are proposed. • BMD and MoE values from transcriptional and apical data are compared.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1]
  1. Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, Health Canada, Ottawa K1A 0K9 (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. ILS, Inc., P.O. Box 13501, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States)
  4. Department of Biology, Carleton University, 1125 Colonel By Drive, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22285557
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 274; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; ADENOMAS; CARCINOGENS; FURANS; GLUTATHIONE; HEPATOMAS; INFLAMMATION; LIVER; METABOLISM; MICE; MITOCHONDRIA; ONCOGENES; PHOSPHOTRANSFERASES; RATS; RECEPTORS; RISK ASSESSMENT; TOXICITY