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Title: Multi-parameter in vitro toxicity testing of crizotinib, sunitinib, erlotinib, and nilotinib in human cardiomyocytes

Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi) have greatly improved the treatment and prognosis of multiple cancer types. However, unexpected cardiotoxicity has arisen in a subset of patients treated with these agents that was not wholly predicted by pre-clinical testing, which centers around animal toxicity studies and inhibition of the human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene (hERG) channel. Therefore, we sought to determine whether a multi-parameter test panel assessing the effect of drug treatment on cellular, molecular, and electrophysiological endpoints could accurately predict cardiotoxicity. We examined how 4 FDA-approved TKi agents impacted cell viability, apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, metabolic status, impedance, and ion channel function in human cardiomyocytes. The 3 drugs clinically associated with severe cardiac adverse events (crizotinib, sunitinib, nilotinib) all proved to be cardiotoxic in our in vitro tests while the relatively cardiac-safe drug erlotinib showed only minor changes in cardiac cell health. Crizotinib, an ALK/MET inhibitor, led to increased ROS production, caspase activation, cholesterol accumulation, disruption in cardiac cell beat rate, and blockage of ion channels. The multi-targeted TKi sunitinib showed decreased cardiomyocyte viability, AMPK inhibition, increased lipid accumulation, disrupted beat pattern, and hERG block. Nilotinib, a second generation Bcr-Abl inhibitor, led to increased ROS generation, caspase activation, hERG block, andmore » an arrhythmic beat pattern. Thus, each drug showed a unique toxicity profile that may reflect the multiple mechanisms leading to cardiotoxicity. This study demonstrates that a multi-parameter approach can provide a robust characterization of drug-induced cardiomyocyte damage that can be leveraged to improve drug safety during early phase development. - Highlights: • TKi with known adverse effects show unique cardiotoxicity profiles in this panel. • Crizotinib increases ROS, apoptosis, and cholesterol as well as alters beat rate. • Sunitinib inhibits AMPK, increases lipids and alters the cardiac beat pattern. • Nilotinib causes ROS and caspase activation, decreased lipids and arrhythmia. • Erlotinib did not impact ROS, caspase, or lipid levels or affect the beat pattern.« less
Authors:
 [1] ; ; ; ;  [1] ; ;  [2] ; ;  [1]
  1. Quintiles, 777 Oakmont Lane Suite 100, Westmont, IL 60559 (United States)
  2. ChanTest Corporation, 14656 Neo Parkway, Cleveland, OH 44128 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22285415
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology; Journal Volume: 272; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APOPTOSIS; CHOLESTEROL; DRUGS; ETHERS; GENES; IN VITRO; LIPIDS; NEOPLASMS; OXYGEN; TOXICITY; TYROSINE