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Title: Effect of freeze-drying and self-ignition process on the microstructural and electrochemical properties of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12}

Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is prepared by a method involving self-ignition of a freeze-dried gel. • Addition of NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} modifies the self-ignition propagation mode. • Well-crystallized Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} phase is obtained after only 2 h at 800 °C. • Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} powder has 161 mAh g{sup −1} capacity and good retention at C/4 rate. - Abstract: Crystalline Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} is synthesized by a method involving the freeze-drying and self-ignition of a gel prepared from titanium isopropoxide, lithium nitrate and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC). This synthesis route yields crystalline Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} particles after calcination at 800 °C for 2 h. In an alternative route, addition of ammonium nitrate shifts the self-ignition mode from wave-like propagation to simultaneous. Powders with different microstructures are thereby obtained. Electrochemical characterization shows that the best results for Li{sup +} intercalation/desintercalation are obtained for the powder prepared without ammonium nitrate addition. These results highlight the necessity for a control of the self-ignition mode to obtain adequate properties.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ; ; ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. GREEnMat/LCIS, Department of Chemistry, B6a, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège (Belgium)
  2. (Belgium)
  3. Chemical Engineering Laboratory, Department of Applied Chemistry, B6a, University of Liège, Sart-Tilman, 4000 Liège (Belgium)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22285200
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Materials Research Bulletin; Journal Volume: 48; Journal Issue: 11; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; AMMONIUM NITRATES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; IGNITION; LITHIUM IONS; LITHIUM NITRATES; LITHIUM TITANATES; LYOPHILIZATION; MICROSTRUCTURE; SYNTHESIS; THERMAL GRAVIMETRIC ANALYSIS; TITANIUM; X-RAY DIFFRACTION