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Title: Low-cost electrochemical treatment of indium tin oxide anodes for high-efficiency organic light-emitting diodes

We demonstrate a simple low-cost approach as an alternative to conventional O{sub 2} plasma treatment to modify the surface of indium tin oxide (ITO) anodes for use in organic light-emitting diodes. ITO is functionalized with F{sup −} ions by electrochemical treatment in dilute hydrofluoric acid. An electrode with a work function of 5.2 eV is achieved following fluorination. Using this electrode, a maximum external quantum efficiency of 26.0% (91 cd/A, 102 lm/W) is obtained, which is 12% higher than that of a device using the O{sub 2} plasma-treated ITO. Fluorination also increases the transparency in the near-infrared region.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)
  2. (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22280538
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Letters; Journal Volume: 104; Journal Issue: 4; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANODES; ELECTROCHEMISTRY; FLUORINATION; FLUORINE IONS; HYDROFLUORIC ACID; INDIUM COMPOUNDS; LIGHT EMITTING DIODES; OPACITY; QUANTUM EFFICIENCY; SURFACES; TIN OXIDES; WORK FUNCTIONS