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Title: The combination of glutamate receptor antagonist MK-801 with tamoxifen and its active metabolites potentiates their antiproliferative activity in mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cells

Recent reports suggest that N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) blockade by MK-801 decreases tumor growth. Thus, we investigated whether other ionotropic glutamate receptor (iGluR) antagonists were also able to modulate the proliferation of melanoma cells. On the other hand, the antiestrogen tamoxifen (TAM) decreases the proliferation of melanoma cells, and is included in combined therapies for melanoma. As the efficacy of TAM is limited by its metabolism, we investigated the effects of the NMDAR antagonist MK-801 in combination with TAM and its active metabolites, 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHTAM) and endoxifen (EDX). The NMDAR blockers MK-801 and memantine decreased mouse melanoma K1735-M2 cell proliferation. In contrast, the NMDAR competitive antagonist APV and the AMPA and kainate receptor antagonist NBQX did not affect cell proliferation, suggesting that among the iGluR antagonists only the NMDAR channel blockers inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. The combination of antiestrogens with MK-801 potentiated their individual effects on cell biomass due to diminished cell proliferation, since it decreased the cell number and DNA synthesis without increasing cell death. Importantly, TAM metabolites combined with MK-801 promoted cell cycle arrest in G1. Therefore, the data obtained suggest that the activity of MK-801 and antiestrogens in K1735-M2 cells is greatly enhanced when used in combination. -more » Highlights: • MK-801 and memantine decrease melanoma cell proliferation. • The combination of MK-801 with antiestrogens inhibits melanoma cell proliferation. • These combinations greatly enhance the effects of the compounds individually. • MK-801 combined with tamoxifen active metabolites induces cell cycle arrest in G1. • The combination of MK-801 and antiestrogens is an innovative strategy for melanoma.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal)
  2. (Portugal)
  3. Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, Flow Cytometry Unit, University of Coimbra, 3000-354 Coimbra (Portugal)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22278263
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Experimental Cell Research; Journal Volume: 321; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
60 APPLIED LIFE SCIENCES; APOPTOSIS; CELL PROLIFERATION; COMBINED THERAPY; DEOXYURIDINE; DMSO; EDTA; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASE; MELANOMAS; METABOLITES; MICE; NAD; RECEPTORS; TAMOXIFEN