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Title: Effect of implanted species on thermal evolution of ion-induced defects in ZnO

Implanted atoms can affect the evolution of ion-induced defects in radiation hard materials exhibiting a high dynamic annealing and these processes are poorly understood. Here, we study the thermal evolution of structural defects in wurtzite ZnO samples implanted at room temperature with a wide range of ion species (from {sup 11}B to {sup 209}Bi) to ion doses up to 2 × 10{sup 16} cm{sup −2}. The structural disorder was characterized by a combination of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, nuclear reaction analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, while secondary ion mass spectrometry was used to monitor the behavior of both the implanted elements and residual impurities, such as Li. The results show that the damage formation and its thermal evolution strongly depend on the ion species. In particular, for F implanted samples, a strong out-diffusion of the implanted ions results in an efficient crystal recovery already at 600 °C, while co-implantation with B (via BF{sub 2}) ions suppresses both the F out-diffusion and the lattice recovery at such low temperatures. The damage produced by heavy ions (such as Cd, Au, and Bi) exhibits a two-stage annealing behavior where efficient removal of point defects and small defect clusters occurs at temperatures ∼500 °C, while the second stage is characterizedmore » by a gradual and partial annealing of extended defects. These defects can persist even after treatment at 900 °C. In contrast, the defects produced by light and medium mass ions (O, B, and Zn) exhibit a more gradual annealing with increasing temperature without distinct stages. In addition, effects of the implanted species may lead to a nontrivial defect evolution during the annealing, with N, Ag, and Er as prime examples. In general, the obtained results are interpreted in terms of formation of different dopant-defect complexes and their thermal stability.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. Department of Physics, Centre for Materials Science and Nanotechnology, University of Oslo, PO Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway)
  2. Royal Institute of Technology, KTH-ICT, Electrum 229, SE-164 40, Kista, Stockholm (Sweden)
  3. Institute of Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22278168
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 7; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; ANNEALING; BISMUTH 209; BORON 11; BORON FLUORIDES; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DIFFUSION; HEAVY IONS; ION BEAMS; MASS SPECTROSCOPY; NUCLEAR REACTION ANALYSIS; PHYSICAL RADIATION EFFECTS; POINT DEFECTS; RUTHERFORD BACKSCATTERING SPECTROSCOPY; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ZINC OXIDES