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Title: Exchange bias magnetism in films of NiFe/(Ni,Fe)O nanocrystallite dispersions

Ni{sub 3}Fe/(Ni,Fe)O thin films having a nanocrystallite dispersion morphology were prepared by a reactive ion beam-assisted deposition technique. The crystallite sizes of these dispersion-based films were observed to decrease from 8.4 ± 0.3 nm to 3.4 ± 0.3 nm as the deposition flow-rate increased from 2.78% to 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar. Thin film composition was determined using selective area electron diffraction images and Multislice simulations. Through a detailed analysis of high resolution transmission electron microscopy images, the nanocrystallites were determined to be Ni{sub 3}Fe (a ferromagnet), NiO, and FeO (both antiferromagnets). It was determined that the interfacial molar Ni{sub 3}Fe ratio in the nanocrystallite dispersions increased slightly at first, then decreased as the oxygen content was increased; at 7.89% O{sub 2}/Ar, the interfacial molar ratio was essentially zero (only NiO and FeO remained). For nanocrystallite dispersion films grown with O{sub 2}/Ar flow-rate greater than 7.89%, no interfacial (intermixed) Ni{sub 3}Fe phase was detected, which resulted in no measurable exchange bias. Comparing the exchange bias field between the nanocrystallite dispersion films at 5 K, we observed a decrease in the magnitude of the exchange bias field as the nanocrystallite size decreased. The exchange bias coupling for all samples measured set in at essentially the same temperature (i.e., the exchangemore » bias blocking temperature). Since the ferromagnetic/anti-ferromagnetic (FM/AFM) contact area in the nanocrystallite dispersion films increased as the nanocrystallite size decreased, the increase in the magnitude of the exchange bias could be attributed to larger regions of defects (vacancies and bond distortions) which occupied a significant portion of the FM/AFM interfaces in the nanocrystallite dispersion films.« less
Authors:
; ; ;  [1] ; ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)
  2. Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada)
  3. Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 402, Taiwan (China)
  4. Department of Engineering and System Science, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22275587
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 17; Conference: 55. annual conference on magnetism and magnetic materials, Atlanta, GA (United States), 14-18 Nov 2010; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; 77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; ANTIFERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS; ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; ELECTRON DIFFRACTION; FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS; INTERFACES; INTERMETALLIC COMPOUNDS; ION BEAMS; IRON; IRON OXIDES; MAGNETISM; NANOSTRUCTURES; NICKEL; NICKEL OXIDES; OXYGEN; THIN FILMS; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; VACANCIES