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Title: Electronic structure and magnetic properties of LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanocrystalline electrode materials

The process of sol–gel synthesis was applied to obtain LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} nanopowders. The samples were characterized by following methods: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM/EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and SQUID magnetometry. XPS was used to examine the chemical composition and oxidation state of manganese, in particular the Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio from the deconvolution of the complex Mn3p lines. The size of the grains and crystallites were independently obtained from SEM images and XRD patterns, respectively. In all the cases a critical interplay of electronic (Mn{sup 3+}/Mn{sup 4+} ratio), structural (unit cell volume) and magnetic properties was observed depending on the synthesis process. - Graphical abstract: SEM image of Li{sub 0.79}Ni{sub 0.41}Mn{sub 1.35}O{sub 4.45} sample. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LiMn{sub 1.5}M{sub 0.5}O{sub 4} (M=Al, Mg, Ni, Fe) and LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}/TiO{sub 2} obtained by sol–gel method. • XRD method was used to determine the crystal structure. • SEM/EDX imaging have been done. • XPS electronic structure was examined and discussed. • Experimental effective magnetic moment and the calculated one were compared.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ;  [1] ;  [1] ;  [3] ;  [2] ;  [1]
  1. Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, ul. Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)
  2. Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)
  3. (Poland)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22274130
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 206; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CRYSTAL STRUCTURE; CRYSTALS; ELECTRODES; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; MAGNETIC MOMENTS; MAGNETIC SUSCEPTIBILITY; MANGANESE; MANGANESE IONS; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SPINELS; SYNTHESIS; TITANIUM OXIDES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; X-RAY PHOTOELECTRON SPECTROSCOPY