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Title: Defect chemistry of phospho-olivine nanoparticles synthesized by a microwave-assisted solvothermal process

Nanocrystalline LiFePO{sub 4} powders synthesized by a microwave-assisted solvothermal (MW-ST) process have been structurally characterized with a combination of high resolution powder neutron diffraction, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and aberration-corrected HAADF STEM imaging. A significant level of defects has been found in the samples prepared at 255 and 275 °C. These temperatures are significantly higher than what has previously been suggested to be the maximum temperature for defect formation in LiFePO{sub 4}, so the presence of defects is likely related to the rapid MW-ST synthesis involving a short reaction time (∼5 min). A defect model has been tentatively proposed, though it has been shown that powder diffraction data alone cannot conclusively determine the precise defect distribution in LiFePO{sub 4} samples. The model is consistent with other literature reports on nanopowders synthesized at low temperatures, in which the unit cell volume is significantly reduced relative to defect-free, micron-sized LiFePO{sub 4} powders. - Graphical abstract: Temperature-dependent antisite defect formation has been observed in nanocrystalline LiFePO{sub 4} powders synthesized by a microwave solvothermal process, using high resolution diffraction and STEM imaging. Display Omitted - Highlights: • LiFePO{sub 4} nanopowders synthesized by a microwave-assisted solvothermal process. • Defects directly observed by aberration-corrected HAADF STEM imaging.more » • Antisite defects present from synthesis at 255 and 275 °C. • Defects present from higher temperature synthesis than previously reported. • Powder diffraction data have been analyzed in detail for various defect models.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)
  2. Electrochemical Energy Laboratory and Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
  3. Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22274091
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Solid State Chemistry; Journal Volume: 205; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC, PHYSICAL AND ANALYTICAL CHEMISTRY; CRYSTALS; DEFECTS; ELECTRIC BATTERIES; LITHIUM IONS; NANOSTRUCTURES; NEUTRON DIFFRACTION; POWDERS; SYNTHESIS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; X-RAY DIFFRACTION