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Title: Ellipsometry characterization of polycrystalline ZnO layers with the modeling of carrier concentration gradient: Effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture

Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) has been applied to study the effects of grain boundary, humidity, and surface texture on the carrier transport properties of Al-doped ZnO layers fabricated by dc and rf magnetron sputtering. In the SE analysis, the variation in the free carrier absorption toward the growth direction, induced by the ZnO grain growth on foreign substrates, has been modeled explicitly by adopting a multilayer model in which the optical carrier concentration (N{sub opt}) varies continuously with a constant optical mobility (μ{sub opt}). The effect of the grain boundary has been studied by comparing μ{sub opt} with Hall mobility (μ{sub Hall}). The change in μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} indicates a sharp structural transition of the ZnO polycrystalline layer at a thickness of d ∼ 500 nm, which correlates very well with the structure confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. In particular, below the transition thickness, the formation of the high density grain boundary leads to the reduction in the μ{sub Hall}/μ{sub opt} ratio as well as N{sub opt}. As a result, we find that the thickness dependence of the carrier transport properties is almost completely governed by the grain boundary formation. On the other hand, when the ZnO layer is exposed to wet air atmore » 85 °C, μ{sub Hall} reduces drastically with a minor variation of μ{sub opt} due to the enhanced grain boundary scattering. We have also characterized textured ZnO:Al layers prepared by HCl wet etching by SE. The analysis revealed that the near-surface carrier concentration increases slightly after the etching. We demonstrate that the SE technique can be applied to distinguish various rough textured structures (size ∼ 1 μm) of the ZnO layers prepared by the HCl etching.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ; ;  [2]
  1. Center of Innovative Photovoltaic Systems (CIPS), Gifu University, 1-1 Yanagido, Gifu 501-1193 (Japan)
  2. Tokyo Research Laboratory, TOSOH Co., Ltd., 2743-1 Hayakawa, Ayase-shi, Kanagawa 252-1123 (Japan)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22273681
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 13; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CARRIER MOBILITY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; CONCENTRATION RATIO; DOPED MATERIALS; ELLIPSOMETRY; ETCHING; GRAIN BOUNDARIES; GRAIN DENSITY; GRAIN GROWTH; HUMIDITY; HYDROCHLORIC ACID; LAYERS; POLYCRYSTALS; TEXTURE; TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; ZINC OXIDES