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Title: Investigation of combinatorial coevaporated thin film Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}. I. Temperature effect, crystalline phases, morphology, and photoluminescence

Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} is a promising low-cost, nontoxic, earth-abundant absorber material for thin-film solar cell applications. In this study, combinatorial coevaporation was used to synthesize individual thin-film samples spanning a wide range of compositions at low (325 °C) and high (475 °C) temperatures. Film composition, grain morphology, crystalline-phase and photo-excitation information have been characterized by x-ray fluorescence, scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence imaging and mapping. Highly textured columnar grain morphology is observed for film compositions along the ZnS-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} tie line in the quasi-ternary Cu{sub 2}S-ZnS-SnS{sub 2} phase system, and this effect is attributed to structural similarity between the Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}, Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3}, and ZnS crystalline phases. At 475 °C growth temperature, Sn-S phases cannot condense because of their high vapor pressures. As a result, regions that received excess Sn flux during growth produced compositions falling along the ZnS-Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4}-Cu{sub 2}SnS{sub 3} tie line. Room-temperature photoluminescence imaging reveals a strong correlation for these samples between film composition and photoluminescence intensity, where film regions with Cu/Sn ratios greater than ∼2 show strong photoluminescence intensity, in comparison with much weaker photoluminescence in regions that received excess Sn flux during growth or subsequent processing. The observedmore » photoluminescence quenching in regions that received excess Sn flux is attributed to the effects of Sn-related native point defects in Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} on non-radiative recombination processes. Implications for processing and performance of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} solar cells are discussed.« less
Authors:
; ; ; ; ; ; ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ;  [3]
  1. National Renewable Energy Laboratory, 15013 Denver West Parkway, MS3218, Golden, Colorado 80401 (United States)
  2. Renishaw Incorporated, 5277 Trillium Blvd., Hoffman Estates, Illinois 60192 (United States)
  3. Departments of Chemical Engineering, Electrical and Computer Engineering, and Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22273463
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; COPPER SULFIDES; EXCITATION; FLUORESCENCE; MORPHOLOGY; PHOTOLUMINESCENCE; POINT DEFECTS; RAMAN SPECTROSCOPY; SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY; SOLAR CELLS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K; TEXTURE; THIN FILMS; TIN SULFIDES; X-RAY DIFFRACTION; ZINC SULFIDES