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Title: Band gap narrowing in BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles facilitated by multiple mechanisms

In the present work, BaTiO{sub 3} nanoparticles of four different size ranges were prepared by sol-gel method. The optical band gap of these particles at some size ranges has come down to 2.53 eV from 3.2 eV, resulting in substantial increase in optical absorption by these ferroelectric nanoparticles making them potential candidates for light energy harvesting. XRD results show the presence of higher compressive strain in 23 nm and 54 nm size particles, they exhibit a higher band gap narrowing, whereas tensile strain is observed in 31 nm and 34 nm particles, and they do not show the marginal band gap narrowing. The 23 nm and 54 nm particles also show a coupling of free carriers to phonons by increasing the intensity of LO phonon mode at 715 cm{sup −1}. The higher surface charge density is expected in case of enhanced surface optical Raman modes (638 cm{sup −1}) contained in 31 and 34 nm size particles. In addition to this, the red shift in an LO mode Raman spectral line at 305 cm{sup −1} with decrease in particle size depicts the presence of phonon confinement in it. The enhanced optical absorption in 23 nm and 54 nm size particles with a narrowed band gap of 3 eV and 2.53 eV is due to exchange correlation interactionsmore » between the carriers present in these particles. In 31 nm and 34 nm range particles, the absorption got bleached exhibiting increased band gaps of 3.08 eV and 3.2 eV, respectively. It is due to filling up of conduction band resulting from weakening of exchange correlation interactions between the charge carriers. Hence, it is concluded that the band gap narrowing in the nanoparticles of average size 23 nm/54 nm is a consequence of multiple effects like strain, electron-phonon interaction, and exchange correlation interactions between the carriers which is subdued in some other size ranges like 31 nm/34 nm.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2]
  1. Advanced Centre of Research in High Energy Materials (ACRHEM), University of Hyderabad, Hyderabad 500046 (India)
  2. (India)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22273453
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 17; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BARIUM COMPOUNDS; CHARGE CARRIERS; CHARGE DENSITY; CORRELATIONS; ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE; ELECTRON-PHONON COUPLING; ENERGY GAP; FERROELECTRIC MATERIALS; NANOSTRUCTURES; PARTICLES; PHONONS; RED SHIFT; SOL-GEL PROCESS; STRAINS; TITANATES; VISIBLE RADIATION; X-RAY DIFFRACTION