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Title: Characterization of 2.3 μm GaInAsSb-based vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser structures using photo-modulated reflectance

We report angle dependent and temperature dependent (9 K–300 K) photo-modulated reflectance (PR) studies on vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) structures, designed for 2.3 μm mid-infrared gas sensing applications. Changing the temperature allows us to tune the energies of the quantum well (QW) transitions relative to the VCSEL cavity mode (CM) energy. These studies show that this VCSEL structure has a QW-CM offset of 21 meV at room temperature. Consequently the QW ground-state transition comes into resonance with the CM at 220 ± 2 K. The results from these PR studies are closely compared with those obtained in a separate study of actual operating devices and show how the PR technique may be useful for device optimisation without the necessity of having first to process the wafers into working devices.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [1] ;  [2] ; ; ; ; ;  [3] ; ; ;  [4]
  1. Ibnu Sina Institute for Fundamental Science Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor Bahru 81310 (Malaysia)
  2. (United Kingdom)
  3. Advanced Technology Institute and Department of Physics, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)
  4. Walter Schottky Institut, Technische Universität Munchen, Am Coulombwall 4, D-85748 Garching (Germany)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22271280
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
77 NANOSCIENCE AND NANOTECHNOLOGY; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; COMPARATIVE EVALUATIONS; GALLIUM ARSENIDES; GROUND STATES; INDIUM ANTIMONIDES; LASERS; QUANTUM WELLS; RESONANCE; SPECTRAL REFLECTANCE; SURFACES; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; TEMPERATURE RANGE 0273-0400 K