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Title: Effects of self-heating and phase change on the thermal profile of hydrogen isotopes in confined geometries

Growth of high-quality single-crystal hydrogen in confined geometries relies on the in situ formation of seed crystals. Generation of deuterium-tritium seed crystals in a confined geometry is governed by three effects: self-heating due to tritium decay, external thermal environment, and latent heat of phase change at the boundary between hydrogen liquid and vapor. A detailed computation of the temperature profile for liquid hydrogen inside a hollow shell, as is found in inertial confinement fusion research, shows that seeds are likely to form at the equatorial plane of the shell. Radioactive decay of tritium to helium slowly alters the composition of the hydrogen vapor, resulting in a modified temperature profile that encourages seed formation at the top of the shell. We show that the computed temperature profile is consistent with a variety of experimental observations.
Authors:
; ; ; ; ;  [1]
  1. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22271182
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Journal of Applied Physics; Journal Volume: 115; Journal Issue: 12; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; CALCULATION METHODS; CRYSTAL GROWTH; DEUTERIUM; HEATING; HELIUM; HYDROGEN; INERTIAL CONFINEMENT; LIQUIDS; MONOCRYSTALS; NUCLEAR DECAY; TRITIUM; VAPORS