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Title: DWARF GALAXIES WITH IONIZING RADIATION FEEDBACK. I. ESCAPE OF IONIZING PHOTONS

We describe a new method for simulating ionizing radiation and supernova feedback in the analogs of low-redshift galactic disks. In this method, which we call star-forming molecular cloud (SFMC) particles, we use a ray-tracing technique to solve the radiative transfer equation for ultraviolet photons emitted by thousands of distinct particles on the fly. Joined with high numerical resolution of 3.8 pc, the realistic description of stellar feedback helps to self-regulate star formation. This new feedback scheme also enables us to study the escape of ionizing photons from star-forming clumps and from a galaxy, and to examine the evolving environment of star-forming gas clumps. By simulating a galactic disk in a halo of 2.3 × 10{sup 11} M{sub ☉}, we find that the average escape fraction from all radiating sources on the spiral arms (excluding the central 2.5 kpc) fluctuates between 0.08% and 5.9% during a ∼20 Myr period with a mean value of 1.1%. The flux of escaped photons from these sources is not strongly beamed, but manifests a large opening angle of more than 60° from the galactic pole. Further, we investigate the escape fraction per SFMC particle, f{sub esc}(i), and how it evolves as the particle ages. Wemore » discover that the average escape fraction f{sub esc} is dominated by a small number of SFMC particles with high f{sub esc}(i). On average, the escape fraction from an SFMC particle rises from 0.27% at its birth to 2.1% at the end of a particle lifetime, 6 Myr. This is because SFMC particles drift away from the dense gas clumps in which they were born, and because the gas around the star-forming clumps is dispersed by ionizing radiation and supernova feedback. The framework established in this study brings deeper insight into the physics of photon escape fraction from an individual star-forming clump and from a galactic disk.« less
Authors:
; ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4]
  1. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)
  2. Center for Relativistic Astrophysics, School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)
  3. Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States)
  4. Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22270849
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 775; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; COSMIC PHOTONS; GALACTIC EVOLUTION; GALAXIES; LIFETIME; PHOTON EMISSION; RADIANT HEAT TRANSFER; RED SHIFT; RESOLUTION; STAR EVOLUTION; STARS; ULTRAVIOLET RADIATION