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Title: LOW-VELOCITY SHOCKS TRACED BY EXTENDED SiO EMISSION ALONG THE W43 RIDGES: WITNESSING THE FORMATION OF YOUNG MASSIVE CLUSTERS

The formation of high-mass stars is tightly linked to that of their parental clouds. Here, we focus on the high-density parts of W43, a molecular cloud undergoing an efficient event of star formation. Using a column density image derived from Herschel continuum maps, we identify two high-density filamentary clouds, called the W43-MM1 and W43-MM2 ridges. Both have gas masses of 2.1 × 10{sup 4} M{sub ☉} and 3.5 × 10{sup 4} M{sub ☉} above >10{sup 23} cm{sup -2} and within areas of ∼6 and ∼14 pc{sup 2}, respectively. The W43-MM1 and W43-MM2 ridges are structures that are coherent in velocity and gravitationally bound, despite their large velocity dispersion measured by the N{sub 2}H{sup +} (1-0) lines of the W43-HERO IRAM large program. Another intriguing result is that these ridges harbor widespread (∼10 pc{sup 2}) bright SiO (2-1) emission, which we interpret to be the result of low-velocity shocks (≤10 km s{sup –1}). We measure a significant relationship between the SiO (2-1) luminosity and velocity extent and show that it distinguishes our observations from the high-velocity shocks associated with outflows. We use state-of-the-art shock models to demonstrate that a small percentage (10%) of Si atoms in low-velocity shocks, observed initially inmore » gas phase or in grain mantles, can explain the observed SiO column density in the W43 ridges. The spatial and velocity overlaps between the ridges of high-density gas and the shocked SiO gas suggest that ridges could be forming via colliding flows driven by gravity and accompanied by low-velocity shocks. This mechanism may be the initial conditions for the formation of young massive clusters.« less
Authors:
;  [1] ; ; ; ; ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ; ;  [4] ; ; ;  [5] ; ;  [6] ;  [7] ;  [8] ;  [9] ;  [10] more »; « less
  1. Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 60 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
  2. Laboratoire AIM Paris-Saclay, CEA/IRFU - CNRS/INSU - Université Paris Diderot, Service d'Astrophysique, Bât. 709, CEA-Saclay, F-91191, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)
  3. I. Physikalisches Institut, Universität zu Köln, Zülpicher Str. 77, D-50937 Köln (Germany)
  4. ENS, LERMA, UMR 8112, CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, 24 rue Lhomond 75005 Paris, France LRA/ENS (France)
  5. Université de Bordeaux, LAB, CNRS, UMR 5804, F-33270 Floirac (France)
  6. Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)
  7. UK ALMA Regional Centre Node, Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
  8. Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 CNRS, Université Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014, Paris (France)
  9. Université de Toulouse, UPS, CESR, 9 Avenue du Colonel Roche, F-31028 Toulouse Cedex 4 (France)
  10. Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22270828
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Astrophysical Journal; Journal Volume: 775; Journal Issue: 2; Other Information: Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
79 ASTROPHYSICS, COSMOLOGY AND ASTRONOMY; ASTRONOMY; ASTROPHYSICS; COSMIC DUST; DENSITY; EMISSION SPECTRA; GIANT STARS; GRAVITATION; LUMINOSITY; MOLECULES; PROTOSTARS; SILICON OXIDES; STAR EVOLUTION; VELOCITY