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Title: Modeling techniques for quantum cascade lasers

Quantum cascade lasers are unipolar semiconductor lasers covering a wide range of the infrared and terahertz spectrum. Lasing action is achieved by using optical intersubband transitions between quantized states in specifically designed multiple-quantum-well heterostructures. A systematic improvement of quantum cascade lasers with respect to operating temperature, efficiency, and spectral range requires detailed modeling of the underlying physical processes in these structures. Moreover, the quantum cascade laser constitutes a versatile model device for the development and improvement of simulation techniques in nano- and optoelectronics. This review provides a comprehensive survey and discussion of the modeling techniques used for the simulation of quantum cascade lasers. The main focus is on the modeling of carrier transport in the nanostructured gain medium, while the simulation of the optical cavity is covered at a more basic level. Specifically, the transfer matrix and finite difference methods for solving the one-dimensional Schrödinger equation and Schrödinger-Poisson system are discussed, providing the quantized states in the multiple-quantum-well active region. The modeling of the optical cavity is covered with a focus on basic waveguide resonator structures. Furthermore, various carrier transport simulation methods are discussed, ranging from basic empirical approaches to advanced self-consistent techniques. The methods include empirical rate equation andmore » related Maxwell-Bloch equation approaches, self-consistent rate equation and ensemble Monte Carlo methods, as well as quantum transport approaches, in particular the density matrix and non-equilibrium Green's function formalism. The derived scattering rates and self-energies are generally valid for n-type devices based on one-dimensional quantum confinement, such as quantum well structures.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Institute for Nanoelectronics, Technische Universität München, D-80333 Munich (Germany)
  2. Network for Computational Nanotechnology, Purdue University, 207 S Martin Jischke Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22269555
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Applied Physics Reviews; Journal Volume: 1; Journal Issue: 1; Other Information: (c) 2014 AIP Publishing LLC; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; BLOCH EQUATIONS; DENSITY MATRIX; EFFICIENCY; FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD; GREEN FUNCTION; MONTE CARLO METHOD; QUANTUM WELLS; REACTION KINETICS; RESONATORS; SEMICONDUCTOR LASERS; SIMULATION