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Title: On bolus for megavoltage photon and electron radiation therapy

Frequently, in radiation therapy one must treat superficial lesions on cancer patients; these are at or adjacent to the skin. Megavoltage photon radiotherapy penetrates through the skin to irradiate deep-seated tumors, with skin-sparing property. Hence, to treat superficial lesions, one must use a layer of scattering material to feign as the skin surface. Although megavoltage electron beams are used for superficial treatments, one occasionally needs to enhance the dose near the surface. Such is the function of a “bolus,” a natural or synthetically developed material that acts as a layer of tissue to provide a more effective treatment to the superficial lesions. Other uses of boluses are to correct for varying surface contours and to add scattering material around the patient's surface. Materials used as bolus vary from simple water to metal and include various mixtures and compounds. Even with the modernization of the technology for external-beam therapy and the emergence of various commercial boluses, the preparation and utilization of a bolus in clinical radiotherapy remains an art. Considering the varying experiences and practices, this paper briefly summarizes available boluses that have been proposed and are employed in clinical radiotherapy. Although this review is not exhaustive, it provides some initialmore » guidance and answers questions that may arise in clinical practice.« less
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2] ; ;  [3] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3] ;  [4] ;  [1] ;  [2] ;  [3]
  1. University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)
  2. (Canada)
  3. Grand River Regional Cancer Centre, Kitchener, Ontario (Canada)
  4. London Regional Cancer Program, London, Ontario (Canada)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22262822
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: Medical Dosimetry; Journal Volume: 38; Journal Issue: 3; Other Information: Copyright (c) 2013 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam, The Netherlands, All rights reserved.; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
61 RADIATION PROTECTION AND DOSIMETRY; BUILDUP; ELECTRON BEAMS; EXTERNAL BEAM RADIATION THERAPY; NEOPLASMS; PHOTON BEAMS; SCATTERING; SKIN