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Title: Thermodynamic processes associated with frostbite in the handling of liquid nitrogen

It is often taught that exposure to liquid nitrogen will cause frostbite or more severe damage to exposed skin tissue. However, it is also demonstrated that a full hand can be briefly immersed in liquid nitrogen without damage. To better understand and possibly visualize the effects of human tissue exposure to liquid nitrogen, a series of tests were conducted using simulated hands and arms composed of molded gelatin forms. The simulated hands and arms were immersed, sprayed, or splashed with liquid nitrogen both with and without state of the art personal protective equipment. Thermocouples were located within the test articles to allow for thermal mapping during the freezing process. The study is aimed to help understand frostbite hazards and the time constants involved with the handling of liquid nitrogen to improve future safety protocols for the safe handling of cryogenic fluids. Results of the testing also show the limits to handling liquid nitrogen while using various means of protection.
Authors:
 [1] ;  [2]
  1. Cryogenics Test Laboratory, NASA Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center, FL, 32899 (United States)
  2. Dept. Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 32611 (United States)
Publication Date:
OSTI Identifier:
22262745
Resource Type:
Journal Article
Resource Relation:
Journal Name: AIP Conference Proceedings; Journal Volume: 1573; Journal Issue: 1; Conference: Cryogenic engineering conference, Anchorage, AK (United States), 17-21 Jun 2013; Other Information: (c) 2014 American Institute of Physics; Country of input: International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)
Country of Publication:
United States
Language:
English
Subject:
42 ENGINEERING; 36 MATERIALS SCIENCE; CRYOGENIC FLUIDS; GELATIN; LIQUIDS; NITROGEN; SAFETY; SIMULATION; SKIN; TESTING; THERMOCOUPLES